User Tools

Site Tools


Back to 4th Wisconsin Infantry

From the unpublished memoir of Eliza Paine, daughter of the 4th's Colonel. LSU Archives

“The Relay House: Here it was that the real war experience began. We went right into the camp and lived in a tent. Our tent was a large one with a canvas partition in the middle; the front room was used as an office and sitting room while the back room was our sleeping room. a sentinel always marched too and fro in front of the tent. There was another tent a little in the rear of ours which was used as a dining tent, and my Father's staff officers took their meals with us there. The cooking was done by a colored man on a stove under a tree near by. The first night we spent in camp was an exciting one, for we were aroused from our slumbers by what is called the long roll. This is a continuous beating of the snare drum, the sound rising and subsiding in a sort of wave or roll, and it is only used in case of an expected attack from an enemy. It is kept up perhaps fifteen minutes and has a very ominous sound, especially to one hearing it for the first time.
My Father hurried out to see what was the matter. My teeth chattered with terror and I wished myself safe back at my Grandfather's. However it was not very long before my anxiety was over, for Papa came back and told us the cause of the alarm. A few members of the band had been out to serenade some ladies and as they were returning a sentinel saw the gleam of their instruments and mistaking them for firearms gave the alarm.
My Father took this opportunity of inspecting the picket guard and he took me with him on his rounds. We had a long walk in the early dawn and I was much impressed with the strangeness of the scene. Here and there was stationed a solitary soldier who marched silently back and forth, and almost the only sounds to be heard were the occasional twitter of a bird or the dropping of dew falling from leaf to leaf.
The days passed very pleasantly during that bright month of October. The soldiers were very kind to me and seemed glad to make things for my amusement. They put up a swing for me under a tree back of our tent and made me a play house in an old dry goods box set up on its side, and one man carved a very pretty little cradle for my dollie. Among other things they carved pretty little ornaments out of bone, little trinkets for the watch chain and finger rings. I had a finger ring carved very prettily. Sometimes they inlaid the things with sealing wax and made fanciful designs upon them.

My playhouse was a great source of amusement. I used to cook meals for my small household. The soldiers cooked their meals out of doors. In baking beans they used to dig a hole in the ground, put in some live coals and then put in the beans in some strong utensil and cover them over with coals and ashes. The soldiers declared the flavor was better than any cooked in a stove. So I made a hole in the ground and tried to get a fire to burn there. The soldiers used to help me and I was able to roast potatoes, make apple sauce &c. One night while sleeping on my little cot I rolled out of bed and awoke in great surprise to, find myself quite outside the tent looking up at the stars.

There were several families living near the camp with whom we became acquainted, and they often sent us flowers and showed us other attentions. I remember one lady made me a little silk United States flag which I still possess.

When the Autumn rains came we were not very comfortable at all times in our watery bedrooms, so my Father hired a room for us in a house near by and whenever there was a storm we went there to pass the night. While we were at the Relay House there was an epidemic of typhoid fever among the soldiers; at one time there were sixty cases in the hospital. I have often heard my Father speak with great sorrow that in those days he understood so little the laws of sanitation. Realizing that the water supply had become contaminated he did move his camp; but even that did not prevent the death of. a number of the soldiers. One afternoon I walked through the wards of the hospital with my Mother. It seemed that one poor sick fellow noticed me, for before any days & note came to my Father from old Uncle Johnnie, one of. the nurses, asking that the little girl who had visited the hospital would come again to see poor Chicks, an Indian Half-breed, who lay dying of the fever and asked to see me. My Mother and I set out at once and were soon at the dying man's bed-side. The poor fellow stretched out his hand to me and looked wistfully at me, as if he thought in some way I could help him. I shall never forget the look of appeal in his large dark eyes. He held my hand closely clasped in his and we stayed with him until near the end when my Mother led me away. Tears were streaming down old Uncle Johnnie's cheeks and my Mother and I were weeping.

For the first few weeks after going into.the camp the Regiment had been supplied with gray uniforms, and afterwards they were furnished with the regulation army blue. The soldiers were inclined to be rather careless and would sometimes wear a part of one uniform and a part of the other, which did not present a very soldierly appearance. So my Father issued an order that only the blue uniform should be worn. One evening at dress parade my father appeared in his army blue uniform complete except for his cap, which was gray. All during the parade the men were smiling and seemed to feel that they had a good joke on their Colonel. As soon as my Father noticed what he had done he made a pleasant little speech, apologized to the men and invited them to go up to the sutler's tent where they would find a barrel of apples at their disposal.

During our stay at the Relay House my Father made one trip to Washington, I think in connection with securing arms for his regiment. He brought my Mother and me with him and we passed a day or two at a large boarding house where we afterwards came to live when my Father was stationed at Washington. At the time I speak of Washington was rather dismal looking. The unpaved streets were muddy and cut up by large army wagons always passing through the city and there were no street cars, but omnibuses conveyed passengers through Pennsylvania Avenue to the Capital. During this little visit a friend of my Father's, a congressman, invited my Father and Mother to go with him to one of President Lincoln's receptions. it was decided that I might go too and it made a deep impression on my mind. Mr. Lincoln took my band in his and in his and bending his tall form kissed me calling me “Little Sister”. Mrs. Lincoln too kissed me and spoke to me very kindly. We also went to the Capital, but I found sitting so long in the galleries of the Senate and House of Representatives very tiresome as I could understand very little of what was being said by the speakers.

Late in the autumn my Father was ordered to Baltimore. We went first to a boarding place near the camp and were there until after Christmas. Then we moved into barracks which had been hastily constructed and, furnished in an impromptu manner.

Several weeks am very pleasantly and then one evening in February orders came to the regiment to. break camp and start for Newport News on their way south. After a few days spent with friends in Baltimore my Mother and I started for Ohio and we spent the spring and summer with my grandparents.”

The State of Wisconsin Blue Book



Halbert E. Paine, Colonel, Milwaukee ; Sidney A. Bean, Lieut. Colonel, Waukesha; Fred. Boardman, Major, La Crosse; L.D. Aldrich, Adjutant, Madison; A. J. McCoy, Quartermaster, Beaver Dam; A. H. Van Norstrand, Surgeon, Jefferson; 8. W. Wilson, 1st Ass’t Surgeon, Milwaukee; H. A. Mirriman, 2d Ass’t Surgeon, Racine; Rev. A.C. Barry, Chaplain, Racine.


Company A— Whitewater Light Infantry.—C. E. Curtice, Captain; P. A. Cole, 1st Lieut.; A. E. Chaffee, 2d Lieut., Whitewater.
Company B - Ripon Rifles.—G. W. Carter, Captain; H. W. Ross, 1st Lieut; H. B. Carter, 2d Lieut., Ripon.
Company C—Sheboygan County Volunteers.—B. B. Gray, Captain; Pascal Pauli, 1st Lieut.; James R. Cole, 2d Lieut., Sheboygan.
Company D—Columbia Rifles—J. Bailey, Captain; W. S. Paine, 1st Lieut; E. R. Herren, 2d Lieut., Kilbourn City.
Company E—Jefferson County Guards.— William P. Moore, Captain; Beloit; 8. B. Tubbs, 1st Lieut.; H. B. Lighthizer, 2d Lieut., Jefferson.
Company F—Geneva Independents.—D. C. Roundy, Captain; Harrison Durkee, 1st Lieut.; H. F. Craigue, 2d Lieut., Geneva.
Company G—Hudson City Guards.—D. M. White, Captain; J. H. Wing, 1st Lieut. James Keefe, 2d Lieut , Hudson.
Company H—Oconto River Drivers.—J. F. Loy, Captain, Green Bay; E. J. Peck, 1st Lieut.; Albert 8. Ores, 2d Lieut., Oconto.
Company I—Monroe County Volunteers.—J. W. Lynn, Captain; 8. R. Blake, 1st Lieut.; D. G. Jewett, 2d Lieut., Sparta.
Company K—Calumet Rifles.—Harrison C Hobart, Captain; J. B. Reynolds, 1st Lieut., Chilton; Seward Newell, 2d Lieut.

The numerical strength of the Fourth Regiment when it left camp at Racine, was as follows:

Field and Staff, 9; Company officers, 30; Band, 23; Non-commissioned officers, musicians, and privates, 991; total of regiment, 1,053.


The Racine Advocate, July 7, 1861


Field Officers.


Staff Officers. Adjutant LEWIS D. ALDRICH Quarter Master ANDREW J. MCCOY, Surgeon ABRAHAM H. VAN NORSTRAND, 1st Asst. Surgeon S. COMPTON SMITH, 2nd Asst. Surgeon S. W. WILSON Brigadier General's Staff. Captain John L. HATHAWAY, Chaplain REV. A. CONSTANTINE BARRY, Sergeant Major PETER MOORE, Quarter Master's Sargean ASA KINNEY, Drum Major JAMES L. MANVILLE, Fife Major WILLIAM D. HOARD,

Regimental Band.

THEODORE KNOLL Leader, F. C. Smith B flat Cornet, M. M. Webb B flat Cornet, David Alverson B flat Cornet, J. L. Jones E flat Cornet Franz Rochr E flat Cornet, Ferdinand Wetzel Alto Solo, F. Ostron 1st E flat Alto, C. C. Powell 2nd Alto, R. J. Robins. 3rd E flat Alto. Daniel W. Bradtey 1st B flat Baritone, J. M. Harrison 2nd Baritone, Daniel G. Nellis 3rd Britone, Geo. P. Hale 1st E flat Tenor, James H. Young 3rd Tenor, W. B Hatch Bass Tubor, W. D. Hoard Bass Tubor, Major P. Webb Bass Tubor, C. H. Allyn Tenor Drummer, A. W. James Bass Drummer, Franz Bischoff Cymbals.

Company “A”.

Captain, C. F. CURTICE, lst Lieutenant, F. L. KEISER, 2d do PHILO A CASTLE. 1st Sergeant… Alfred B. Chaffer, 2d do Hiram S. Nyce, 3d do John W. Herrington, 4th do H. N. Beckley, 5th do Charles Steele, 1st Corporal, W. F. Farnsworth, 2d do C. L. Branch, 3d do Thos. Duffy, 4th do Joseph F. Brown, 5th Sidney Smith, 6th do Moses Ranney, 7th do O. K. Eaton, 8th do John Rowe.


James H Adams Isaac Booking Amos H Buckhart John Barnham James Cardle James G Conklin Lewis Castle Moses Duncomb James Ennis Samuel D Furgeson Gilbert B Finch James Ganderson Charles A Green Jerome B Humphrey George Holden Nelson Johnson Walter M King Austin Kittleson Franklin Kieth C S Lovejoy W T Ludman William W Mailo Josiah C McManus Noble O Moses Orlando O Allen Jerome H Back M E Roswell W H Brewer W Creiger Joseph A Camberlain Willlam Dake Oscar Dunbar George J England Stephen L Fish Thos Gill Orlan M Griggs Nelson O Giffin Fred B Hamilton William Harland

John Johnson Charles Kribs Hiram King Jr Clark M Kenyon F W Ludman Charles S Miller Samuel Mulligan William H Moffat Marcus W Morton Niels Nielson Ole B Olson Henry Perry Alanson Plumb George H Phillips Stephen Preedy John D Rowse Isah Robinson Jr James Scott David E Simmon Frederick Shaller William O Sax John Torphy William H Winham Joseph Wheland Maj Webb William Newton Charles Perry Ashbell Paterson Jacob Phillips D A Proctor Franklin Robinson Syrenias Rease Calvin Smith Samuel Stellan George H Sumners Geerge Turner Charles Vodre Gideon J Wire James E Williams

Company “B.”

Captain OSCAR H. LAGRANGE, 1st Lieutenant HENRY W ROSS, 2d do GEORGE W. CARTER, 1st Sergeant Horatio B Baker, 2nd do William T Whiting, 3rd do Alanson B Burroughs, 4th do Lemuel Stearns, 5th do Hermann Stemple, 1st Corporal Alfred Meadhurst, 2d do George F Clark 3d do Henry Bowerman, 4th do Silas W Butler, 5th do Thomas Hale, 6th do Edward A Ellsworth, 7th do Darius L Gleason, 8th do Henry O Kimball,


George L Armstrong George W Bradley Henry Button Carl Berwald Nathan R Brown Henry W Bennet James M Burt Daniel Clark (drummer) James F Crouch Edward R Chapen Clark B Delano George H Davis Daniel P Brundage Thomas J Cross Edward Clark Epheram B Cornwell Abraham S Cross George F Crowan Daniel S Cross Henry J Duane Daniel M Maxon John Moffat Albert H Masters Silas W Martin Edwin McCollister George W Miller Alpheus McNitt Lorenzo G Miller Louis W Maunske Stillman Maine Richard Ober F Osborne George F Pygall Samuel W Powell Eugine Pride James W Parker Chester A Piper Myron S Piper Samuel Patterson Harmon B Robinson

Ervin Devendorf Barber Eaton Joshua Eaton Cornelius Forbes Charles Fletcher Abner Gonsalus Burvil Gleason William L Griffith Daniel N Greene Willian Galhor John W Henderson Edwin D Henry Charles Henry William Hales James Ivers Charles Jenkins Charles L Kimball Nathaniel C Kibby John Keuhn Frederick O Kleinhart Charles N Kimball Oscar F Knapp Neton Knute John H Lynch Lyman A Loper Agustus Lube Wallace LaGrange Andrew L LaGrange Almon B Leese Lewis Reiter Andrew Ross Jr Amos H Root Jeremiah Root Albert Rosebrook Elisah A Randall Melvin A Sage Charles F Schultz Stephen C Spatler Frederick Schmidt John Shearer William W Soper DeWitt C Strong Herman Stempel Isaac Soper Wilhelm Schmidt Julius C Thompson Melvin B Tair Hiram W Wheeler George Wilcox Charles A Sleeper James Saunders William Seely William K Spencer Frederick Sprague L L Tair Benjamin B Tair John M Weston William K Wykoff

Company “C”

Captain EDMUND B. GRAY. 1st Lieutenant PASCAL PAULI. 2nd do JAMES R. COLE. 1st Sergeant George W. Durgin, Jr. 2nd do Gustavus Wintermeyer. 3rd do James Thompson. 4th do Otto Puhlmann. 5th do Henry Brooks. 1st Corporal Ivory B. Lucas. 2nd do Timothy O'Connor. 3rd do Nathan Cole. 4th do Theodore C. Hawkins. 5th do Aaron C. Bush. 6th do Charles Witte. 7th do George Krentler. 8th do William J. Turner.


John Allman Charles Arnold John W Arnold Frank Bishop Frederick W. Buttke Hiram Bradford Simeon N Ball Edwin Bump Benjamin W Brush William L Buzzell Amos Carpenter Newton H Culver Frederick Dorr Reed R Danforth Riley Divinnel Joel A Eastman Wilhelm F Gottling Elvin Esty John W Guck Edward Gyles Henry A Hackett Marvin B Hansen Chauncy W Hyatt David Hatch James Johnson Albert Keach Edward Liloff Emmett McDonald Dehave Norton Joseph Onthelder William J Polein Willian Plancett W M Root James Rogan E E Sharp P J Salley D Sullivan William Spratt A Smith, J W Thorpe Charles W Teed Fred A Wolff J J White Fred Gachowt Rollin Adams Oscar R Arnold William O Burt Henry Burton John S Beeckler Michael W Benson Asa H Bradley Lewis W Bon Leon C Bartlett Lewis S Carleton George H Call Hugh Drummond Qiney A Danforth James M Davis Wilson Deets Charles D Eastwood Morris Fife James Greeley Austin Gibbons Elisha W Howard Begurdus Higgins David Harkins Sherman Johnson John L Jennings Jacob Loeb Frank Lavine Lewis M Nichols John N Norwood William Ochlmann Samuel C Patten Harmon Pierce A C Rogers Lace Radcleff W Robben William Saager C Schaeman J Stoddard Frank Shauley L Struthers O R Tracey William H Warner H J Wepperecht Samuel Workman

Company “D.”

Captain JOSEPH BAILY. 1st Lieutenant WALTER S. PAYNE. 2nd do EDWIN R. HERRON. 1st Sergeant Charles Mueller. 2nd do. Guy C. Pierce. 3rd do Nathaniel J. White. 4th do Charles B. Farr. 5th do Charles S. Farham. 1st Corporal Henry B. Garthwart. 2nd do Ell Norton. 3rd do Edward P. Woodruff. 4th do Joseph G. Miller. 5th do Abraham Boynton. 6th do Charles W Osborn. 7th do Virgil Thayer. 8th do Chauncey D. Tarbox. Fifer James M. Harrison. Drummer Niles Steilman.


E P Amos E Boynton Jno Bebough D Byander Chas E Braddock R Carpankle J Cottington J F Capel Horace Dike Frank Dawes Joseph Earl G W Fogal F C Ferris D C Freeland Stephen Grennois L E Hatch J H Hubbard C W F Hovey Wm Ingham J M Jones A C Ketcham J Kerr M Leech C Lynes M McKune Thos Morehouse G M Martin J H Needman Geo Oakes Wm Ohern J Peek G W Porter L D Perry C W Shaffer John A Stephens H B Smith N B Smith M Skinner S Stivers J B Thatcher G W Underwood B Wood Jas Woodford S S Wheeler

G L Bailey M Brown J W Baldwin FW Brookins John D Copp J D Craig R L Chase W J Duffield Geo S Dane J N Earll Wm Fee A J Fish H B fay I J George G Hancock A Houghtalling John Holmes Alvin Hoskins Charles H Johnson A H James A Keeny S Lamott Geo O Lee R Lynes L Miller Wm Manes A P Nikes M Newall Jr Chas Olson Chas S Pickard P Parker J G W Porter Henry Rich Oley P Stern James Stinson S W Stow W P Stellick C S Sawyer Byron R Tarbox F W Talbot E Vleit E O White D Walreth Wm J Wright

Company “E.”

Captain WEBSTER P. MOORE, 1st Lieutenant SETH B. TREBBS, 2nd do HENRY B. LIGHTLIZER, 1st Sergeant Charles A. Stone, 2nd do Charles D. Wooster, 3rd do John W. Blake, 4th do Henry C. Westphail, 5th do Norman McBeath, 1st Corporal Charles Trisell, 2nd do Arthur W. Mason, 3rd do Lewis Jones, 4th do Dolphus E. Pixley, 5th do Albert L. Stone, 6th do Lucious W. Hillyer, 7th do John T. Higbie, 8th do Thos. Bentley, Drummer Charles F. Rierburgh, Fifer E. D. Ainsworth.


N H Borden D Barcrum N Brinks G Banks J N Bell W A Baker P Bush C Beadlestone Wm Cameron E S Carr P Crowns E P Danford E G Darling J Livingston G Leiberer J Leh C Lowe C H Marsh Wm W McKinzie S J Marsh Jas McKinley Geo R Milmine A Neitzert J L Nobles J Phuller Levi Pramer O W Pomeroy M Ray D D Sally E J Stephens Wm E Sweet Moses G Smith D M Strong L Tenny I Terwilleger A Taylor R G Warman John Wilson 2d Wm P Ward W A Weaver F Windare S C Watson A Woodard Wm H O'Kelley

J Bradford Thos Burdick A Brown Z R Barrett L C Bonner D Bratt A Babcock C Beadlestone Wm Chapin A Carille Jas Cory Wm Doty Ed Donaldson C L Duncon N W Dayton, E Darr L Fuller Nichols Frederick Jno J Garlock H George Wm Hibard P H Halenbeck P Huffman S Hall E Hayden Jr FG Heyer H S Hendle P Halkamker Wm Helfecht L Hegar A Heffman L Jones W H Renny L D Kenny A W Kelsey H Kelsey John Lewis H Y Lawrence J W Woodward Wm Wagner J N Wright Benj Woodman Jno H O'Kelley

Company “F.”

Captain D. C. ROUNSEY, 1st Lieutenant GEO. H. BROWN, 2nd do A. J. WEATHERWAN, 1st Sergeant Harris Durkey, 2nd do John P. Brice, 3rd do John Hotchkiss, 4th do James H. Shaver, 5th do Isaac N. Meade, 1st Corporal Luther Clark, 2nd do Joseph S. Luce, 3rd do Richard D. Carmacle, 4th do William Parks, 5th do Chas, A. Johns, 6h do Jerome B. Tupper, 7th do Miles Seeley, 8th do Albert Burdick.


Henry C Ambler Richard Aylward Horace G Beardsley Em L Beebe Joseph Blake Larson G Blanchard Rollen C Blodget John Britton Nicholas G Bowars Chris Coffee L W Davids Wm H Dodge Sidney Dodge Micheal Fitzgeald Horace D Green Ephram J Hopkins Stewart W Keyes Henry MeGill Allen B McBride Isaac Oles Aaron Paine Carroll Powell Henry Putman Horace Sherman Wm H Storms Fitz Trunbull Alvaro W Tupper Cyrus D Utter G V Viles Geo W Walker Theo Weeks F H Bunth Johnathan Leech J S Perkins Buttles Winters Briggs Craige Cole Moxon Rowley Dyer Halloway Lee

Asbary R Burdick Nathan Burton John Bush Albert Butters Roswell Burt Wm Campbell Pat Carroll Edward Chamberlain Geo Church Reuben Cronk Hugh Davidson D Perry Drinkwine Ezra C Farnham James S Gibbs Edward Henderson We Hurlburt Marcus R Klock Noys Lull James C Matthews Charles H McNeal Geo E Parker John A Parks Chenery Puffer Jacob Ripley H Lewis Snow Wm Tabor Patrick Tuhey Joseph P Tupper Chas R Vanorman Leonard Waffle Nelson W White M W Weeks John Wood Thos Handy Lewis Browning Young Crandol Beasler George McVean Eaton D G Nellis Patrick Whaling

Company “G.”

Captain DANIEL M. WHITE, 1st Lieutenant ISAAC H. WING, 2nd do JAMES KEEFE, 1st Sergeant Jeremiah H. Harrington, 2nd do Haddison P. Green, 3rd do Peter Harper, 4th do Henry A. Wilson, 5th do Edward A. Clapp. 1st Corporal William E. Exter, 2nd do Erastus H. Holmes, 3rd do Warren P. Knowles, 4th do Dexter S. Balcomb, 5th do Joseph Nutter, 6th do James B. Allen, 7th do Martin H. Freeland, 8th do Thomas D. Raymond, Drummer Charles H. Alleyn, Fifer William H. Winchester.


Geo Allen Wm Allen Nelson Armo R Beardsley H Bennett S J Bliss R C Bboutwell S H Briggs G M Chalfart J Dawley O P Dwyer H J Flint L Lorning D Lovell S Madison W McCollister A W Mitchell F M Montague D Needham Wm H H Nichols M O'Flaherty A Palmer J H Palmer J W Palmer P Parslow E Peabody A Philbrook Nelson Porter Joseph Propeck G T Randall G T Rice H B Rogers A W Ryan F C Smith E Silverthorn J Stickney S L Tibbits J A Tinker J H VanMeter G Wilcox Stephen Young Samuel Jewett G Allen

A P Anderson Thos Barnett S J Beebe S S Beebe J Boggess C Boucher C W Brayton F H Bushnell John E Comstock L D Dunn H J Farnham W H Foster D S Freeland A Glover H Goodrich R Gray E H Hand H A Head F D Harding E A Harris Wm H Hatch G S Hayes C O Hoyt E M Hughes G R Hughes Thos Hyslop Wm Jewell D H Johnson W F Johnson Dan Jones John E Jones Wm D Kent Byron Kenyon John Kline M Kenyon W Knowlton C Law C O Tyler Silas Walton Jas Wilson R R Pettyjohn Daniel T Fox.

Company “H.”

Captain JOSEPH F. LOY, 1st Lieutenant ERASTUS J. PECK, 2nd do - ALBERT STORES, 1st Sergeant W. B. Piersell, 2d do Porter Jones, 3rd do James O'Hara, 4th do Edward Ramsey, 5th do Spencer C. Bills, 1st do William H. Haskell, 2nd do Cornelius Houlihan 3rd do Geo. W. Lanning, 4th do William Smith, 5th do Henry Miller, 6th do Martin B. Marsh, 7th do Henry P. Manuel, 8th do Henry Sandford.


John Ackley Joseph Bowers Louis Bamerick O Benoit Wm Brophy SD Carpenter A Capers J Dodney H Daily J Danner Wm Ebbs D Margue F Menner L Miller J Marshall E Minnick D Morris A Miller J Murphy C Marr Jas Newman F L Otto D O Leary F Paramore D E Patterson Wm Pahinsh John Pier Wm J Price Geo Penree Wm Perigo C C Rosencrantz John Rouch Carl Rutler J S Stohl Geo Stepp Win R Shirtleff Robt Spice Joseph Toole D P Temple G Verce R Wyant P Wayles

Pat Burns Lewls Bohaka Louis Blanchard John Brown Geo W Combs D Crawford D Curry C A Colton A Dodge J Dean P Dederick A W Ellis O Foot E Fitzpatrick G Faulkerson C Farrel I Feithousen H Grover John Gasper Jas Gardner Wm L Grant John Huffman J Heap Nelson Hunt P Hanaway P Joosens M Kelly Jas Kennedy T La France D Le Grant A C Lowell J Lenkins V Laymax F Moore Wm H Morrison R McLoud F Mollet A Martin T B Whiting Ed Willams Augustus A George

Company “I.”

Captain JOhN W. LYNN, 1st Lieutenant LEVI R. BLAKE, 2nd do ANSYL A. WEST, 1st Sergeant David G. Jewett, 2nd do Myron Chase, 3rd do James B. Farnsworth, 4th do Wm. J. Bush, 5th do Albert H. Blake, 1st Corporal George Hill, 2nd do Lafayette Boring, 3rd do Joseph Hall, 4th do Benj. F. Hall, 5th do John Kennedy, 6th do Daniel A. Kennedy, 7th do Wellington Rice, 8th do John P. Matherson.


J Aalgen A Ayers J F Iter M W Brist J Beckwith Geo W Brown J Bachelder L B Bennett G L Beardsley P Cary J C Davidson C Dains C Durlin W E Farley J Greingo I Goodenough J R Gard E Hull A G Hall E J Hodgkins J Jewell J J Large G W Lewis N L Linsley J C Miller E McLain J H McVean W H Parshall J T Perry L M Putman A Rowin D Rathburn R A Robertson A B Smith H C Stafford J A Smith Geo Saunders F M Thomas L Van Acrman J W Wheeler H S Walker G L Williams

F H Allen A Ayers David A Mideon C Baker Hugh Baker Geo P Bailey S R Brainerd J N Cole J L Chandler G W Cook Jas Douglas N Deal M Graham J Greenman T S Gaily J Hill W Hine J R Hall C M Johnson R R Jones J C Leigh C R Lisenbee J B McClure A J Matterson W H Meadows G L Osborn Wm Pengburn Wm Parson John Quackenbush H O Robbins W Roberts D A Seeley J C Switzer J B Skinner A D Sabin Moses Tucker John Van Kerk Joxeph A Walker W H Yeomans J H Yeomans D A Seeley

Company “K.”

Captain, HARRISON C HOBART, 1st Lieutenant JAMES ROBINSON, 2nd DO JOSEPH B. REYNOLDS, 1st Sergeant George Reighly, 2nd do Stewart Newell, 3rd do Randolph. J. Needham, 4th do William L. Daskam, 5th do Benjamin F. Waterman, 1st Corporal Norman P. Breed, 2nd do James Sutleff, 3rd do Jeremiah Cummings, 4th do Richard. N. Goodell, 5th do Legare Potter, 6th do Francis C. Roehr, 7th do John W. Hurlbut, 8th do George A. Johnson, Fifer Ira S Graves, Drummer Albert D Sales.


Perry Acker James J Alexander Edwin J Austin Chas L Brewster John Bulings Levi Baker Jacob C Breyfogle Elijah Cone Hiram Carr Daniel B Cofrin J H Cofrin Francis Cummings Andrew J Cheeks Abram Delano Lucus C Dick Edgar Dutcher James Dutcher John V Darling Andrew J Dunlap John Doyle Chas W Dick Joseph Erhard Napoleon A Ebert Henry S Eldridge David Ebert John W Ferdon Danlel E Ferdon Elijah W Ferdon Lexington D Fenelson Milton B Farnham Leroy Ferguson George N Fairfield Orrin Fowler Edward Guck John H Good Luke Gill Elihu R Goff L D Goodrich Ebenezer J Harrington George Hammer James A Hart Asa W Hyatt Nathaniel H Johnson William M Jones Gerhard Jenson Albert Key Leroy Kingsbury Oliver Lavoy Albert M Lawrence John Langes John M Merrill Chas I McCarter John C Mangon S Curtiss Mower Richard A Mangon John S Marygold Lewis Myrick William Morgan Chas Magee Joseph McAllister Otto Ortleib Chester B Palmer Robert J Robinson Lewis Rofinot J J Sweet Edgar Sweet Peter Scheidhaur Elias L Smith O M Sharon, N Frederick Scott Chauncy Timmerman Andrew C West Nicholas Wait Henry 0 Watrous Erastus Welch Samuel Warner Edmund Crans Henry Hardy Frank Gerard Henry M Dake Isaac Nobles


Binghamton NY Broome Republican, July 24, 1861

The Fourth Wisconsin Regiment and the Erie Railroad.

The Elmira Press gives the following version of the difficulty between the Fourth Wisconsin Regiment and Erie Railroad Company:

It seems that the Colonel of the Regiment had signed a written contract, to the effect that he would come by the way of Dunkirk; but in violation of this express agreement, and after the Erie Road had been subjected to the labor and expense of transporting cars to Dunkirk for their use, they went on to Buffalo, and came through on the Buffalo and Corning Road. The Regiment which last preceded them had done the same thing, and not liking the idea of being imposed upon, Superintendent Misot, justly indignant, refused to furnish cars for their transportation from Corning to Elmira. When we left the depot at 10 last evening, the matter had been finally adjusted, and the Regiment was expected to reach here at […] the Buffalo road agreeing to pay full […] fare to the Erie Road for their transportation from Corning down.


Letter of George W. Durgin to Phebe

Camp Randall (in Maryland)
Relay House, Md., Aug. 2, 1861

Dear Phebe,

Still another move and I cannot but hope the final one for the present. Our regiment is greatly broken up, to the mortification of our Colonel, for there can now be no battalion or company drills and we cannot expect to be efficient in the field of battle unless we are constantly exercised in field manuevers. Previous to leaving Baltimore five companies were detached from our regiment on various duties, that of guarding bridges in the northern part of Maryland and an arsenal near Baltimore. We expected, of course, to be detailed somewhere and dreaded lest the duty should be the unpleasant one of being stationed along the line of some railroad. Last Monday afternoon the order came to pack knapsacks and be ready to leave for the “Relay House”. The name has become classic, though nothing ever happened here that would now be considered of any moment. The famous “Massachusetts Sixth” (of Baltimore riot memory ) was about to leave here and we were to take its place. The position is one of real importance and, too, not to be excelled as a pleasant location. The Railroad to Harpers Ferry unites here with the Baltimore and Washington R.R.. A magnificent stone bridge crosses the Potapsco on the line of the latter railroad which has to be guarded. Washington is only 30 miles distant, Baltimore 9 miles and Annapolis Junction the same. It is very necessary that the place should be well guarded and all the thoroughfares through it as well.

We arrived here Monday night and remaining in the cars overnight, on Tuesday morning betook ourselves to the summit of a high hill, a portion of which had been occupied by the Mass. 6th. Col. Paine selected a delightful place for our encampment, right in the midst of a thick grove on the grounds of some (so said to be) secessionist.

The village (St. Denis, I believe) is situated in a valley at the foot of our hill, but of it I know nothing. The hill itself is covered with finely laid out places, evidently belonging to men of wealth. The road to our encampment is through a grove and nearly three-quarters of a mile in length (from the foot of the hill). Almost the whole of the four companies are detailed now for guard duty and for duty away from the camp grounds, so it is very quiet now inside our lines. Men are sent away every night on picket duty. This takes them about three or four miles from camp, into the heart of one of the Maryland secession districts. We had hardly arrived here before our duties were commenced, A guard was detailed of twenty men to be stationed at the Relay House and various bridges, under Lieut. Cole, with orders to arrest all deserters or suspicious persons. Six were arrested and yesterday nine more, all by our boys, a few having been taken by a detachment from another company. Col Paine ordered me to Washington on Wednesday morning with the first six who were taken. Three men were detailed to accompany me. I went there, delivered the prisoners to General Mansfleld, of the Department of Washington, and saw some few of the sights. Aside from the public buildings and grounds, I saw nothing of the city itself that interested me. There were very many Soldiers in the streets, quite too many, most of whom had been at “Bull Run”. A few were wounded but their appearance was vastly better than I had imagined it would be. One Maine regiment (the 1st) just starting for home, looked very, very dirty. The soldiers all seemed in excellent spirits. The desertions are generally from the badly officered Pennsylvania regiments and the First Zouaves. I saw the White House and War and Treasury Departments from the streets. I accidently met Mr. Paine in the street and was glad, I assure you, to see him.

He went through the Capitol with me, but my impression of its beauties are certainly of an undefined character for I was in it but ten minutes. I wished very much to remain but could not could not.

Through Mr. Paine, I heard from Sheboygan for the first time since leaving Wisconsin, and the only time. He could only say that you were all well. There is no use in complaining. I know you write but our location is changed so often our letters do not reach us. I should be very happy could I receive a letter from you, dear, even if it were an old one. Four weeks ago this afternoon I was with you, how pleasant it would be could I this afternoon change my quarters to your brother's house. It is very pleasant here and very healthy. We Shall live well while we remain at the Relay House and as soldiers feel quite satisfied but then it is not home and our welcome visitors are not our dear friends.

I must ask you to write soon. Direct to Camp Randall, St. Denis P. O., Baltimore, Md., of course to 4th Wisconsin Regiment at (as above) My regards to your brother and sister.



George Walter Durgin's Civil War Letters, 1861-1864

Hudson North Star, August 7, 1861


[Frank Clarke, Esq. kindly allows us to make the following interesting extracts from a letter received by him from Charlie Allyn, member of the Regimental Band—which is the latest we have from the 4th Regiment.]

BALTIMORE, July 28th.

Our Camp is beautifully situated on a rise of ground overlooking the city. There are encamped around and in sight of us, over nine thousand troops, and in and about the city from fifteen to twenty thousand, under the command of Major General Dix, from whom our Camp is named.

On Thursday last, the Hudson City Guards and one other company were ordered to go out into the country about ten miles and take possession of a Fort, lately held by the secessionists—and one more company was ordered off to guard a Railroad bridge, which it was feared the Rebels would burn. So it leaves only seven companies here now. Col. Paine felt very bad at having his Regiment broken up, and at once despatched agents to Washington to have them again united and sent on to Virginia— and I am told was successful. We don’t know here any more what we are going to do, or when we are going from here than you do in Hudson. I should act be surprised if we remained here a mouth, nor should I be any more surprised if we should leave here tomorrow.— There is some talk of having all the Wisconsin Regiments together—nothing definite however. The Fifth Wisconsin is at Harrisburg, and we expect them here to-morrow. The Sixth will be here next week.

The weather is quite warm here at present, but I don’t feel the heat as much as I did in Wisconsin. We have cool nights, and I never slept better than I do now. We do not have any hay or straw, but take Mother Earth for our bed, with a rubber blanket to keep the dampness off. We have plenty to eat, and that which is good. We have bean or rice soup once a day, coffee twice a day, and fresh beef occasionally.

Baltimore is a splendid city, and every one says it is the cleanest of any city of its size the World—but it is a little too much “Secesh” for us. More than two thirds of the inhabitants are secessionists, and it is amusing, as we go down into the city, to see parents send their little ones to hurrah for Jeff Davis. Ladies walk the streets with dresses and aprons with the secession flag on them—but the Stars and Stripes only are permitted to float in sight. Two secession printing offices were burned one night last week, We see secession papers here every day and have a chance to hear something of the movement of the Rebels.

I suppose the most of you think that we are not going to see any service, but if you were in our situation you would think differently, and let me assure you that if you hear from us in battle it will be a good report, for I am satisfied that the boys will give a good account of themselves.


Sheboygan Journal, August 7, 1861


Correspondence of the Journal.

FRIEND MILLS:—We arrived here from Harrisburg, this morning, at three clock. We marched through the city with muskets loaded but met with no opposition, Owing to the news of the defeat of the Federal troops before Manassas, we apprehended that the Seceshers in Baltimore would be bold enough to interrupt us.

We are encamped on Mount Clare, a beautiful elevation overlooking the city of Baltimore with Fort McHenry, in the distance. I have not been down town yet, and what is more “if the Court knows herself,” do not intend to, ‘The Rip Raps and Plug Uglies are too thick, Although the city government is now in the hands of loyal men, it is not safe for a soldier to venture in the city alone. The bloody scenes of the 19th April came near being enacted over again here yesterday, upon the reception of the news of the repulse of our troops at Manassas, But the loyalty and vigilance of the police prevented it, A large number arrests of were made.

We now have to be very careful what we eat and drink, for the traitors here, as everywhere, hesitate not to poison the soldiers. Several of the men connected with other regiments here, died yesterday from the effects of poisoned food. I stepped into a Coffee House this morning and called for a lemonade with a “fly” in it but made Mr. Man taste of it before myself.

I was conversering with some of the notorious “Plug Uglies” this afternoon. It appears that the people of the north have labored under the impression that they, and the other “roughs” of Baltimore, composed the secession portion of the citizens, This is a mistake. They are all “Union” men. I am informed by respectable and influential citizens that previous to the bloody riot of the 19th April last that Marshal Kane, caused the arrest of most of the “roughs” on different pretences, so that they could not interfere with the Secessionists.— The men connected with the affair of the 19th of April and who are the Secessionists of this city, are those who pretend to be aristocrats, i. e., men who think that poor white men should be trod under foot, and do their bidding. They dote on their blood and money. But, thank God, they are fastly realizing that one respectable white men is as good as another.

Some 15,000 men are encamped around us, and are with us awaiting orders. Our Reg't is in what is called the Dep't of Annapolis, under Gen. John A, Dix—who is now stopping at Ft. McHenry. Where our Regiments is going next I am unable to inform you. Some think that we will garrisoned at Ft. McHenry, but it is uncertain.

We have just received our now arms and accoutrements, which are Minnie muskets with bayonets.

I have received a pass to visit Port McHenry to-morrow, when I will write you some particulars regarding the fortifications, &c.

I must say that I am much pleased with the appearance of Baltimore. From our encampment we can see the Washington and other monuments rising in the distance, which gives a very pleasing effect to the general appearance of the city, We intend taking a salt water bath to-morrow: something new to most of us.

We have, as yet, had no fault to find with the provisions furnished us. At our present encampment all agree-that it seems more like home than any place we have been in since we left good old Sheboygan.

For the past two days we have had colder weather here than you ever had in Sheboygan, at the same time of year.

The health of Co. C. is very good, at present. Will write again in a day or two. Yours, as ever, in haste,


CAMP DIX, BALTIMORE, July 27, 1861.

FRIEND MILLS:—There has nothing very strange occurred since my last, but I presume that anything from us, however stale, flat and unprofitable“ to others, will be seized with avidity by

your readers, for the simple reason that many of them have friends—may be sons, brothers and husbands—following the fortunes of the Wisconsin 4th.

We are, at this writing, still encamped at Mount Clare, overlooking Baltimore. Yesterday two companies of our regiment were ordered to take charge of an arsenal some 10 miles from here. They left last night, under the charge of Capt. HOBART. Three more of our companies leave this evening to guard the Baltimore & Washington Railroad. That leaves only 5 companies in camp. Company C, (Sheboygan Rifles,) with the four remaining companies, will probably be stationed at or near this city fora month or two. The Massachusetts 8th, which is encamped in a beautiful park just above us, is to leave for home (their time having expired,) when we move our camp to that position.

The 71st N. Y. regiment arrived here from Washington yesterday, on their way home. They were engaged in the great battle at Bull’s Run, on Sunday last. I conversed with-many of them who represent the carnage as terrible in the extreme. To tell you the truth, they seemed heartily sick and disgusted with soldiering. Their clothes were ragged, and their dejected looking countenances bespoke severe hardships undergone. Other three months’ regiments are passing through here daily, on their way home. They say that they are coming back in a few days and enlist for three years; but your “humble servant” knows better. Mark my word, that not five regiments of the one hundred on their way home will ever go to war again.

I think that the battle at Bulls Run taught the people of the North that the Southerners are no cowards, and the people of the South that the Northern men are the best fighting men in the world. I doubt if we hear of any more bragadocia on either side.

I said before that we were to be stationed at Baltimore, There is good reason for this. Maryland is not a loyal State by any means, nor is Baltimore entirely free from “secesh.” If troops were withdraw from here to-day a “Reign of Terror,” not unlike that of Paris in the time of Robespierre, would extend over this beautiful Monumental city. The Union men here are now in such spirits, and well they may be. Citizens can now walk the streets, or retire to their homes with a perfect assurance of security from mobs, which they could not enjoy during the dynasty of Marshal Kane and his co-murderers and assasins.

It is quite safe now to pass through the city. Orderly DURGIN and myself started out on a visit to Ft. McHenry yesterday, but as we neglected to obtain a pass from our Colonel we could not gain entrance to the fort. We'll try it over again. We passed thro’ the entire length West Baltimore street, the principal one of the city, but met with no insult, and saw no flag but the stars and strips floating. On our way back our time and attention was principally directed towards Baltimore Belles and and oysters—both of which are said to be superb in the “shell.”

Gov. RANDALL has just arrived in our camp from Wisconsin direct.

When anything new transpires I shall hasten to inform you. Your readers will have to excuse my hasty scrawls. Writing, as I have to, with paper on the ground, and drums and fifes, and noises incident to a camp of a thousand men, constantly ringing in my ears, it is almost impossible to write anything.

Yours, &c., HIGH PRIVATE.


Wisconsin State Journal, August 12, 1861

No State has cared for her Soldiers as well as Wisconsin.

Capt. Loy, of the Oconto River Drivers, in the 4th Wisconsin, writes a letter from Baltimore,which is published in the Green Bay Advocate. Capt. L. was formerly, for several years, a member of the State Senate, from the Brown County District, and well known here:

We cannot and ought not to complain. We are well fed and well clothed, and no state in the Union has cared for her soldiers as well as Wisconsin. Yes, not half as well. All other regiments envy us.— Our entire equipments are far superior to any I have seen. Every department is carefully looked after. We have an agent attached to our Regiment whose sole and only duty is to look after the sick, wounded and discharged soldiers, and see that they return home in a decent and respectable manner.

in my judgment, Gov. Randall has done his whole duty. He has acted nobly and gentlemanly, and the people will honor him for it as the soldiers do in every Wisconsin Company. We had the pleasure of meeting him here a few evenings since, on dress parade, the soldiers knew nothing of his presence, but just as parade was dismissed it became generally known that he was on the field, but at this time it was too dark to distinguish him. The boys, however, would not stop to inquire further but with one voice they sent up three times three for him, and only as Wisconsin boys can cheer, and I assure you it did not require a close observer to notice that he had won the hearts of the Wisconsin soldiers. Come what will, the soldiers have felt the effects of care and know well how to appreciate it.

You may have now at home, sitting down in inglorious ease, those who will say it costs too much to support our army, but such canting, cowardly louts, I fancy now the people have become tired of and will pay no regard to them. “What I have said of Governor” Randall is upon the principle of “Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesars.” It is his due. It belongs to him, and I trust I can speak my sentiments without running the risk of being styled unsound in these times that try the hearts and nerves of men. * *

I forgot to say to you that I like Col. Paine very much. True he is not a military man, but be is a man of great energy, a gentleman and a scholar, and in my judgment, in military capacity, is far above the majority of men occupying that position; I don’t speak of our State but of all other states, and of the volunteer corps.

The statement of Capt. Loy in regard to the superior outfit of the Wisconsin volunteers, is corroborated by all who have visited Washington and seen the regiments of other States, There is but one exception as far as we have heard. The Rhode Island Regiment equipped under the direction of Gov. SPRAGUE, and partly if not wholly at his own expense, is superior in its appointments to any in the army. Wisconsin is universally admitted to rank next. It is a most creditable fact for our State and one of which we may justly be proud. The men who go to fight the battles of their country deserve at the very least comfortable clothing, and all the care and consideration which the State is capable of bestowing upon them. Partizans solicitous of making a point for the success of their own schemes, and disappointed applicants for filling contracts may inveigh against the expense of their equipment, but those who have sons, brothers and friends in the ranks will not regret. nor grudge the generous policy and paternal care which has marked the course pursued by the State. towards her volunteers.


Sheboygan Journal, August 14, 1861


Correspondence of the Journal,

MARYLAND, July 31st, 1861.

FRIEND MILLS:—We moved to the Relay House from our encampment at Baltimore night before last, where we have pitched our tents and will probably remain some two or three months— provided we are not driven off by the enemy. Our location is a most beautiful one, in a grove, overlooking the country for miles around. We take the place of the Massachusetts 6th, which returned home yesterday, Only five companys of the Regiment are encamped here; the others being stationed on the line of the Balt. & Ohio Railroad, north west of the city.

Our principal duty here is guarding the railroads diverging from this point, of which there are three, the Balt. & O., Annapolis, and Balt. & Washington roads. Ten picked men from each Co. are detailed every night, for a patrol guard. They are stationed from one to five miles from camp, and it is their duty to move about and be constantly on the alert for the advance pickets of the enemy. This is the most dangerous duty we have, as the traitors watch in ambush and pick them off without chance of retaliating. Two men of a Pennsylvania regiment near here, were killed in this way night before last. — One of the boys of our company was shot at last night while on patrol duty.

We are now within 60 miles of Harper's Ferry; 9 miles of Baltimore; 80 miles of Washington, and 14 miles from the point where Jeff Davis says he is going to cross the Potomac in a few days. We are right in the midst of traitors, and I can assure you we are very discret. We had quite an alarm about one o’clock last night. We all turned out in double. quick time, loaded our guns, and fell into line of battle. But it proved to be a false alarm—one of the patrol having fired several shots at somebody or something.

Lieut. COLE, with a squad of Co. C. boys, arrested six deserters from the 'Grand Army' at the Relay House, yesterday. Orderly DURGIN and Corporal HAWKINS took them back to Washington this morning.

Col, Paine has occupied a beautiful gothic cottage, lately occupied by Lt. MURRY, secessionist, as his headquarters. The hospital is also in the building.

The country in this section of Maryland resembles very much the western part of New York. We privates live principally upon oysters and peaches and cream (!!!) What do you think of that? [Think it’s a whopper EDITOR.] “Who wouldn't be a soldier?” [An Ablitionist: -EDITOR.]

It is impossible to tell when or where we go from here. As I said before, we shall probably stop here for a month or two, or, at least, till the next great battle.

Those who wish to send letters and papers to this Regiment, will direct, at present, to Saint Dennis P. O., Relay House, Maryland, It would be well to direct them in charge of the Quartermaster. The health of all of Co, C's boys is first rate.

As usual, yours in haste,



Hudson North Star, August 14, 1861

From the Hudson City Guards.

[Geo. S. Packard, Esq, kindly furnishes us with the following extracts from a private letter written by his brother-in law, Charlie Allyn. The extracts we publish will be interesting to many of our readers, for they are concerning the boys, &c.]

Tuesday, Aug. 6th, 1861.

We are under the command of Major General Dix, who has command the department of Annappolis.

Our regiment has been all broken up, and only four companies remaining here, but there is a good prospect of us being all together again. Last night about twelve o'clock three companies came in, and we expect two-more to-day. I have not seen the Hudson boys for most two weeks, but they will be in to-day.

In regard to our movements, as I told yon in in my last, I don”t know anything about it but it is my opinion that we shall be be here for three months yet. I judge this from what T hear the officer say, and from the preparations they are making for a lengthy stay.

This is a very important point, and there has got to be a strong force here, and I don't know but it wight as well be us as any one else, but we have got as good a regiment as there is in the United States, and men who are anxious and “spilin for a fight,” and I don’t think it is right to keep them housed up here.

As L write I hear the distant sound. of martial music, which, I expect, is the H. C. G., so I must close and see them. There is no use of talking, the Hudson City Guards are the crack company of this Brigade. I wish you could have seen them when they came into camp. I never saw them march so well. It was a splendid sight. Every man was in his exact place. There has been two Zouaves from the Massachusetts 8th regiment drilling them for some time, and they are now-prepared to drill any company in this regiment. I was very glad to see them all. The place where they have been is at an arsenal about nine miles from Baltimore. The people around there felt so bad because they were coming away that they got up a long petition and sent to Gen. Dix to have them remain. They were releaved by an Indiana Regiment, The Wisconsin 5th & 6th are now in Baltimore.


Oconto Pioneer, August 14, 1861

Letter from a “Driver.”

HEAD QUARTERS 4TH REG'T., W. V., Relay House, Md, Aug. 2, 1861.

FRIEND GINTY: Presuming that many, if not all of your readers, would be glad to hear from the company that left your beautiful village for the defence of their country, I take the liberty to address you in regard to them. As you are probably acquainted with the circumstances incident to our departure from your vicinity, I will commence with our leave of Racine, simply saying, in regard to our situation in that place, that it was morpleasant than any we have since realized.

Leaving the most beautiful city in the State amid the tears and cheers of a large throng, we sped away, and reached Chicago at 5 o'clock there to take the cars. for Toledo, O., arriving at that place, after a fatiguing night's ride, at 5 the next morning. Here the ladies (pretty ladies) had provided a repast for our empty stomachs and haversacks, which was indeed relished by the men. But our stay was short, and resuming our seats, we left with three times three cheers for tho ladies of Toledo.

Our next stopping place was Cleveland, Here again were me most hospitably treated, by the fairest of the fair sex, to every thing a soldier’s appetite could cram. Making the welkin ring with cheers for those who treated us thus, we whirled away amid waving handkerchiefs and the deeply felt “God speed you.” - And here let me say, that in aid our journey not a village or hamlet did we pass, but that, from the smallest boy perched upon the fence to the most aged matron in the door, there went up the same ejaculatory prayer for our welcome. The unanimity of feeling is indeed astonishing.

Arriving at Buffalo the next morning, we were escorted through the city by a splendid brass band, and a Zouave company, to the spacious depot of the N. Y. & Erie Railroad, where another repast was awaiting our voraciousness. After appeasing our appetite with delicious coffee, rolls, butter, cold meat, &c., we formed and marched to the depot of the Lake Shore R. R., and reached Corning at about 9 o'clock in the evening. Here we encountered a little difficulty It was the understanding that we were to take the cars at Dunkirk for Elmira, instead of going by the way of Buffalo, but there not being a sufficient number of cars in readiness, the Colonel concluded to take the latter route. This had the effect of […ing] our friends of the road from Dunkirk to Elmira, and coming to their road at Corning, they refused us the privilege of riding over their road without extra pay. This, however, did not occasion much embarrassment on the part of our Colonel, as he gave them till ten o'clock to decide between taking us thro' to Elmira themselves. They being rather slow in coming to a conclusion, some 20 men of the “Oconto River Drivers,” under Captain LOY, and some to more from the “Calumet County Rifles,” under Captain HOBART, proceeded at once to the engine house, took out an engine, (which luckily was already steamed up,) and attaching it to our ponderous train, we moved triumphantly on. - Capt. HOBART officiating as fireman, and one of his company as engineer, our boys guarding the engine and train, also acting in the capacity of brakemen. We reached Elmira safely at 12 o'clock at night. Upon our arrival we were told that 1200 ladies and gentlemen had been waiting our appearance until a late hour, having a fine supper in readiness at the Barracks, which had been used by soldiers formerly quartered there. Our ranks were immediately formed and marched to the barracks, where, even at that late hour, many ladies and gentlemen were still waiting, ready to serve up to us the tempting viands. We immediately marched in and partook heartily of everything, the regimental band enlivening the scene with their sweetest strains.

But I must condense; merely saying, that the next day we passed through the coal regions of Pennsylvania, meeting everywhere with a hearty reception. At Williamsport, the climax was reached in regard to refreshments and pretty girls, and reaching Harrisburg at about 12 o'clock the next night, our fatiged men regaled themselves with a short nap upon the ground. Here we remained a few days, and procuring arms, proceeded to camp in Baltimore, where there are now stationed some 20,000 men. After a week's encampment at the latter city, we received orders to relieve the Massachusetts 6th and proceeded to the Relay House, there to take command of and guard the Washington Junction and the bridge adjacent, a ponderous structure of stone. This is one of the most important points between the South and Washington.

As to our company, they are enjoying themselves much and are greatly pleased with the soldier's life, only praying for a “brush.” Their duties are arduous, a heavy picket guard being posted every night, and there being but few companies at head-quarters at a time. Where ever we have been, we have received the compliment, in common with the regiment, of being the most able bodied and finest appearing and behaved men that have yet come to the seat of war. Should any of the friends of the company in your County wish to write to them, the direction is, “——–, care of of Quarter Master of 4th Regiment Wis, Vol,” and their letters will be received, wherever we may be stationed. B.


The Manitowoc Herald, August 15, 1861

SHOOTING OF A SOLDIER.—A soldier named HULL, attached to the 4th Wisconsin Regiment, stationed at the Relay House, near Washington, was shot on the morning of the 31st ult., by a member of the same Regiment, who had a previous difficulty with him, and so waylaid him for that purpose. The ball passed through his side and came out at the back. The wound was supposed to be mortal.


Evergreen City Times, August 16, 1861

Extracts from a Private Letter from a Lima Volunteer.

We are permitted to make the following extracts from a private letter from DE HAVE NORTON, of Lima, in this county, to his father. It shows the real spirit that animates the breast of our volunteers; and so long as that spirit prevails, with capable officers to lead them, our armies must be invincible:

August 1, 1861.

DEAR FATHER: I am at the famous Relay House, of which you have heard so much. We left Baltimore Monday last, at 4 P. M. We are not in the rebel country and have to be very vigilant. We do not drill very much here, but have to to on picket guard, I went last night.

I will explain the method of scouting with a picket. The Colonel said he wanted 40 men to volunteer to take a dangerous place. I went as one. We took all our arms and ammunition, marched three miles and then scattered all over the country. I think too my post with L. Carlton - two are allowed to go together. We went all over the place of six or eight miles, when we sat down to rest for a little time, it being about 1 o'clock at night. Suddenly the sharp crack of a musket ball rang out on the still night air, and a bullet went whizzing over our heads; at the same time several guns went off. I sprang to my feet, mighty quick, you may guess, and went skulking round (I did not know that I had so much courage before), but could not see anything. The camp were all under arms in about five minutes, but no further firing took place.

It was the first time a picket had been thrown out by us. I was well aware that the pickets of others had been fired on, but did not think that they would try us. The bullet went about eight feet over our heads. Great shot, that, but it was near enough to suit me. I expect to get hurt, but I will never desert my post; I will die first.

Our position guards the great road to Baltimore; if we fail, that place must go. The traitors are all around us pretty plenty. Col. Paine is doing all that lays in his power to save his men; he is a fine man. The Penn. picket was fired on last week and one man was wounded slightly. We took a deserter yesterday and sent him to Washington. He will be shot.

You must write to me. Direct to Co. C. 4th Reg. Wis. Vol., Baltimore, Md., and it will be sent to us from there. Tell mother not to worry about me, I will remember her when on the field of deadly strife, which will be ere long. We are waiting here for another regiment to take our place, when we go to Virginia.

Tell C—a B—t that Bill is well - he goes off scouting tonight. He is a good soldier and a great friend of Lincoln, and will lay down his life for him if need be. He says the traitors must be all hung or shot. John White is sick; does nothing. I have been sick one night - had the headache - am well now and hearty. L. Carlton is well, notwithstanding his exploit last night. I know not when I shall get home. I place my life at my country's service; she may have it as she needs it, but I hope to get home some time.

I have seen the damnable traitor flat. I was flying on a private house; it came very quick!

This is going to be a bloody war. The South are determined, so are we. With God on our side we will beat them yet. I expect to see the battle field ere long, and I hope I shall not prove a recreant to my flag. You watch the course of the 4th Regiment, and you will see where we are.

It is very hot here, but I stand it first rate. We had a terrific thunder storm here the other day. It beats Wisconsin all to pieces for showers. You must give my best respects to R— and all the rest of the boys.

I will now close by wishing you and mother an affectionate good bye.

From your Son,

Our Army Correspondence.

Letter from the Fourth Regiment.

August 3d, 1861.

FRIEND ROSS: I have no stirring tale of deadly strife, feats of valor performed, or victories won as yet, but don't be impatient, we are not on the old has been list but on the just-going-to-do.

We are lying comparatively still this hot weather, drilling and getting acclimated. Our Regiment is all divided up, scattered over one-half of Maryland, guarding Railroad Bridges, watching depots, and searching trains and seizing articles contraband of war. There are plenty of “seceshers” here. Some are bold, and outspoken and some are wolves in sheep's clothing. Since the battle of Bull Run, they have been more defiant. Our boys have considerable fun with them; we have had several of them prisoners.

When we reached Baltimore we went to Mt. Claire and encamped calling it Camp Dix. Here the water was bad, the atmosphere filled with unhealthy vapors, and the climate unhealthy. The result was nearly the whole Regiment was rendered unfit for duty. Gen. Dix began to divide the Regiment into Companies and sending them to healthier localities, which has produced a very beneficial effect.

This is the most uneven country I ever cam across. Pennsylvania is no comparison. We searched the country five miles around to find a level spot large enough to pitch the tents for one company, but in vain. We had to encamp on a side hill, and about every other night we have a regular splashing, dashing, crushing rain storm, and we are drifted away like floodwood to the food of the hill, to dig ourselves out and find out who we are. The land is not stony but fertile. Good crops of grass, fine pasturage, splendid corn and nice orchards cover the side hills as far as the eye can reach. I have not seen a level spot large enough to build a haystack on since I came here. The Negroes here all have one leg shorter than the other so as to work and get around among the hills with greater ease!

The chief feature of interest that has occurred since our arrival, was the appearance of Gov. Randall among us yesterday. During the afternoon he visited the Hospital, went into every room, examined into the conveniencies provided for each. As he passed through and we caught a glance at the good, wholesome, kind, parental look he bore upon his face, we felt new strength and energy. In the evening, he with his aid-de-camp, Hon. George B. Smith, was introduced to the companies present and was received with tremendous cheering and applause. The Governor stated the object of his mission here. He had been to Washington to superintend and provide for the wants of the sick and wounded soldiers of the 2d Regiment, and providing for the conveyance of the dead to their homes and friends. He assured us that wherever we were, whether in the camp, on the march, or on the battle field, we should have the watchful and sustaining care of our State Authorities. If sick, the best of care would be provided. If wounded, the best surgical aid procured. If killed, our remains would be conveyed home to the bosoms of our families and friends, and buried with the honors of war, where our friends and derive the consolation of dropping the tear of sorrow over the remains of those they loved, and not leave their bones to bleach on an enemy's soil.

Such humanity - such tender felling for the finer sensibilities of the human heart - such regard for the nobler feelings of our nature - such reverence shown for the memory of the dead - will wreath a chaplet of flowers to twine around the fair brow of the Badger State and her heroic, humane and philanthropic legislative and executive officers, more glorious than ever crowned the most illustrious warriors and conquerors of ancient or modern times. It is an act of which the annals of history present no parallel. It is a scene on which Angels will look and rejoice, and it will be appreciated by a brave and suffering soldiery.

All the field officers, mounted, escorted the Governor on his way to Washington. Our company has been the healthiest in the Regiment, having the least number in the Hospital. Yours, &c.,

Another Letter from the Fourth.

August 4, 1861.

FRIEND ROSS: We have not seen a “TIMES” since coming to Maryland. One Journal came to camp yesterday and was devoured by eager squads. You have doubtless been apprised of all the important movements of the 4th Wisconsin since they left Racine, from others - how we were fed with pies and cakes and treated with coffee and miscellaneous good things all the way here - how we found a committee of Union men in Baltimore even, to look after our creature comforts - how we have universally been pronounced the crack Regiment, for size and appearance, that have gone to the wars - how the ladies fell in love with the boys, and the boys with the ladies, all along the way - how we were all hungry and tired and grumbled at times - how the boys could see nothing quite so nice as Wisconsin since leaving home. All these things you have been told. I will give you some of my impressions of matters as they are are likely to affect us.

First we have come here to fight out a long and bloody war (unless our leaders compromise!) Many of us will never see Wisconsin again; all of us will be very much changed and almost strangers at home when we return. It is the duty of those at home to see to it that the needed wives and children left behind be tenderly cared for at once. Let no hope that the fathers will soon be home, induce you to wait till complaints are made among the men here of your neglect of duty and pledges made. If you could see how the loyal people of Maryland are willing to sacrifice everything for the Union they love, I am sure it would redouble your already laudable efforts in this great and holy cause.

That the main division of our army is greatly demoralized by the recent defeat, is beyond a doubt. We are in a position to judge of this, much better than we could at Washington. Our Head Quarters are near the famous Relay House, 9 miles from Baltimore and 31 miles from Washington, where are four companies, who are doing patrol and picket duty, and stopping and examining all trains, examining all those from Washington and Harper's Ferry for deserters and suspicious persons, and those going south for contraband articles. I have charge of the examination of all prisoners, and am able to make a good estimate of the feeling of the Army at Washington from their examination. Yesterday we arrested as deserters from the point 25 men. The causes that led them to desert are give as poor food, poor clothing, inattention to all their wants by their officers, and failure to get pay promptly. Many of these men who were through the terrible day at Bull's Run, and have been in the service nearly three months, have never received a penny of pay. Many of the desertions are from the N. Y. and Pennsylvania Regiments. We have found but one from Mass., one from Mich., and none from Wisconsin.

The great evil in our Army seems to be the inefficiency of officers. There are too many poor politicians holding important commands. I am told a Captain in the 2d Wis. Reg., formerly Attorney Gen. of Wis., openly advocates secession doctrines. It cannot be expected that our troops, with such men to lead them, will fight as they ought, and when you add to this feeling, the fact that many of the Co. and staff of the 2d Wis. proved to those brave men who stood the fire of batteries for hours with no one to command them, that they are excellent runners from an enemy, we must look to a reorganization of such Company and Rigimental officers before we can hope for victory against a determined foe. Even our crack Wis. 1st Reg. go home to disband - 'tho I thank Heaven there was not an opportunity for them to so disgrace themselves as did the Penn. 4th, which was given an important position in Heinzelman's Division at Manassas, and just as the battle was opening, because their time had expired the day before, turned away from the battle, and slunk home like cowards.

But if this disaster will only teach our leaders the absolute necessity of discipline, amongst officers as well as soldiers, we shall not have paid too dearly for the lesson. Had our enemies, however, followed up the advantage gained that day, they would not only have destroyed our whole army, but could have taken Washington with 5,000 men. We could not endure, nor need we look for, another defeat. Be assured the next time our armies meet the battle is ours.

The Wis. 4th will prove itself a fighting Regiment, and though we are now scattered pretty well over Maryland, guarding Rail Roads, &c., you may expect soon to hear we are called together and pushed forward to the front, where we want to be.

The weather is frightfully hod, and the house flies a terrible bore in our tents. The boys are for the most part well and ready for duty.

Lt. COLE and 8 of our boys have gone this P. M. eight miles to Ellicott's Mills to arrest some rebels, who we are informed by telegraph, were passing from Frederick City to Baltimore. It is a fine expedition and I hope he will succeed. I have a rebel sword hanging up in my tent, a Cavalry sabre, which was brought from Bull's Run, by one of the N. Y. Fire Zouaves, who had it under his coat last night, when he was arrested as a deserter by Corporal COLE and the men on guard at the Bridge here. Private PLANT took the sword from him, and is quite proud of the trophy.

Do send us your paper weekly.* For the present direct to St. Denis P. O., Maryland. You can't conceive what “a thing of joy” a newspaper from home is.

Tell every body who has a friend amongst us, to write him weekly; the words of cheer and encouragement from dear ones at home are stronger incentives to noble and good actions than anything else under the sun. If mothers, and fathers, and wives, and those who love us, would see us act well our part for the country and ourselves, let them not neglect to write us often. We all send a warm greeting to our friends in Sheboygan County, and assure them we are as strongly as ever devoted to the preservation of our beloved Union.

CO. C. 4th REG. WIS.

*We have sent five copies of the TIMES regularly in search of Co. C., but as they seem not to have been successful in the search, we duplicated as many as we could of the missing numbers, a few days since, and forwarded to the address designated. EDITOR.


Journal and Courier, ca.8-16-61, From the Quiner Scrapbooks

From the Fourth Wisconsin Regiment.

(Correspondence of the Journal and Courier)

Camp Randall, near the Relay House, Md.,
August 16th, 1861.

It is not from a dearth of subjects that I have failed to write sooner, but I determined not to say anything until I could speak knowingly. I find, however, that the nearer we get to the enemy, the less I know of our future destination. Therefore, I can but tell you how and where we have been and are.

You may, perhaps, know that the 4th Regiment has been much divided up and distributed along the Railroad. We remained thus divided until about two weeks ago, to the great discouragement of Col, Paine and almost the entire Regiment.

Since coming together, we have daily a battalion drill, which, taken with the guard duty, keeps us busy.

The weather, until two or three days ago, bus been intensely warm, In fact, warm is no name for it; hot is the term; and then you can scarcely appreciate the lassitude which we all feel from its effect, The number of excuses which the men give to be relieved from drill sufficiently indicate that we are in no condition to do very energetic action at present.

We need invigorating, cool weather for a while, after which we think to be able to do something handsome for the glory of Wisconsin. It has been our hope to get into a brigade under Gen. King, in order that we might have the fellowship of the 5th and 6th Regiments W. V., but in this we are disappointed, What disposition will be made of the 4th Regiment is not yet definitely known, by us at least.

At is thought by many that we will have warm work here in Maryland. It is certain that the rebels have many warm supporters in very many sections of the country.

Our misfortune at Bull Ran seems to have elated the rebels wonderfully. They seem to make all the advances. But I know that when we fight again, the Northern forces will retrieve their honor and regain all the advantages they have lost.

The news from Missouri makes us impatient to be in the field of active operations.

The Regiment are generally satisfied to remain at our present headquarters for a short time, but as soon as cool weather comes on we want some vigorous work.

We think that we have as good a Regiment for fighting as Wisconsin can furnish. Col. Paine is as popular a man and as good a Colonel as needs be. Let us meet the enemy, and we will prove ourselves. This may appear like boasting, but we all feel the truth of what I say.

The Beloit boys will never forget the cause for which they enlisted, or the place from which they came.



Waukesha Freeman, August 20, 1861

From the Fourth Regiment,

We are permitted to make the following extracts from a private letter from Lieut. Col. Bean, dated—

Baltimore, Md., Aug. 11, 1861

“We are as you see still here—expecting to move soon. Gen. Dix is very anxious to keep us here. He is anticipating a great rise in Baltimore, and throughout Maryland—that A Southern army will cross the Potomac by some sudden movement, and in some imperfectly guarded spot—and that their crossing will be the signal for a general eruption throughout the State. If these things should happen this will be the first point of attack—it being the junction of the road to Washington and Harper's Ferry, and our position would become a very dangerous one, as it is now a very responsible one. I am going to Baltimore to morrow to see if I cannot get a few pieces of artillery to defend our position with.

This point is capable of very strong defence, and we do not like to be caught asleep. But I do not myself think it possible that any force should evade General Banks and cross the Potomac. Besides the preparations now look towards another great battle near Washington.”


Sheboygan Journal, August 21, 1861


Correspondence of the Journal.

MARYLAND, Aug. 5th, 1861.

FRIEND MILLS: Hot, hotter, hottest! Whew! From 95 to 103 deg. in the shade, continually. Old residents here speak of it as warmer than usual at this time of the year. Any one would naturally think that vegetation and the earth would be dried up entirely from such steady, hot weather, but it is just the reverse. Crops of all kinds, not already gathered, are unusually forward in this section of the United States - (we are in the U. S. yet.)

On Sunday last, Lieut. COLE, with eight of our boys, (myself included,) were ordered to the Baltimore and Frederick turnpike to intercept four persons who were supposed to have important dispatches and documents from BEAUREGARD to parties in Baltimore We chartered an engine at the Relay House and went to Ellicott's Mills, six miles on the Harper's Ferry road, where we were sadly disappointed by being informed that the birds had flown but half an hour before. By this time the parties escaping having had almost time enough to reach Baltimore we started for camp, not before, however, receiving a good substantial dinner from some of the Union citizens the village. The village is situated in a beautiful valley, on a branch of the Patapsco, and contains about 3,000 inhabitants. It is a manufacturing place, and cotton mills abound innumerable. Although they can get no cotton from the South, they have enough on hand to keep them running till March next.

On Friday last our camp was visited by GOV. RANDALL, accompanied by Hon. GEORGE B. SMITH, of Madison, in your State. They were on their way home from Washington, whither they had been to attend to the wants of the 2nd Regiment, which had just returned from the battle of Bull's Run. At dress parade, in the evening, the Governor made a few remarks, after which, introduced Mr. SMITH to the soldiers, who made a long and patriotic speech, which was received with a great deal of enthusiasm by both officers and men. In the course of their remarks, both he and the Governor took great pains to impress upon our minds the courage and skill shown by the officers of the 2nd. Wis. Regt., at the battle of Bull's Run. They both said that Col. Sherman, of Sherman's battery, told them that all the field and commissioned officers of the regiment behaved with great bravery throughout, and did not leave their regiment or ground until ordered to do so by superior officers, &c. Now, as the Governor and his aid may go to Wisconsin and report the same, I will take this occasion to most emphatically dispute it. There is not an officer or soldier in this Regiment but what knows that the field and many of the commissioned officers of the second behaved in the most cowardly manner during the engagement and retreat.

I have conversed with members of the 2nd Regiment who were in the battle, and they all state that they acted cowards throughout. Of course their are some honorable exceptions. Members of the Massachusetts first, which Regiment was side by side with the second Wisconsin, also give the same report. There is no kind of use in disguising the fact that Col. PECK was three miles ahead of his Regiment in the retreat - and when last seen was still lengthening the distance. Other officers whose names I do not recollect - acted in the same shameful manner - Gov. Randall and Geo. B. Smith to the contrary notwithstanding. All agree, however, that the men did their part nobly and well. After marching 15 miles on the “double quick” they fought like heroes and as northern men only can fight and never thought but what the day was their's until they were ordered to run. Capt. BOUCK, of the second, is reported to have stated that it was of no use to try and whip out the South; that the North might as well cease hostilities now - because they never could whip them. Most any one would think so if they took him as a basis for northern bravery and pluck.

Last evening one of our men belonging to Company D. came into camp, with a bullet wound in his hand. While standing guard on the railroad about one mile from here, he was fired upon by some unknown person, the shot taking effect as above. His wound was immediately dressed by the Surgeon and is doing well. The supposed assassin was arrested this morning and taken to Fort McHenry. If he is found guilty this regiment will have the pleasure - yes, pleasure - of seeing him shot. Standing guard and scouting is pretty dangerous in this vicinity.

Lieut. ROBINSON, of the Calumet Co. has resigned and left for home. Reason - couldn't stand it.

Three of the Companies which have been stationed on the Railroad north of Baltimore returned to camp night before last. Three more are yet to return.

I would take this occasion to ask the friends of the boys in Co. C. to send them all the papers they can afford to, for we can hear more general news that way than in any other. I know they would do so, if they only knew how eagerly their contents are devoured by us - “strangers in a strange land.”

A good looking, intelligent young “contraband” came into camp on Saturday last. He says his master lives 25 miles north of Baltimore. How he will be disposed of I know not. He is now waiting on the officers.

Yours, &c.


MARYLAND, Aug. 13, 1861.

FRIEND MILLS: As you will observe by the heading, we are still in status quo near the Relay House. There has nothing worthy of special note transpired since my last, excepting the loss of two of our men. A soldier by the name of John Needham, belonging to company D., (Columbia Rifles) was accidentally killed on the railroad on Sunday night last. His tent being within a few feet of the track, it is supposed that he arose in his sleep and stepped upon it just in time to be run over by the engine. He was buried with military honors, on Monday afternoon. Yesterday, a soldier named James Smith, of company I., (Monroe Co. Volunteers,) died in the hospital. Disease, neuralgia. Otherwise the health of the camp never was better.

The daily routine of camp life, altho' dull, serves to keep us in good spirits and health. We have battalion and division drills from 6 o'clock in the morning till 12 o'clock at noon - which tends to sharpen our appetites somewhat. This, together with standing police guard, and guarding railroads and bridges, and picketing, and scouting, keeps all hands and the cook out of mischief. However, we are rapidly becoming familiar with all that business.

The long and tedious hours of drill we are obliged to daily go through, assures us that Col. PAINE does not intend to make a jackass of himself and men when called into the field of battle. No, sir! The Colonel is a brick of the first water. When he makes a Bull (ly) Run it will be made of a solemn looking box 2 by 6. In fact all of our field and staff officers are composed of the ingredients which go to make up good commanders. The Colonel goes about the camp wearing a blue drilling blouse and overhauls, and comes and converses with the men as if one of them. He, as well as the rest of our officers, are greatly liked by all the men. The grand secret is, they have our utmost confidence. Occasionally fault is found with the company officers, and I am pained to say that company C. exhibits more than its share.

This soldiering down here in Seceshia is different from the same in Sheboygan. Come to think of it, it is quite different. Scouting through the country, five or six miles from camp alone, at midnight, with no friend near you but your trusty Minnie, except perhaps some assassin who is watching the opportunity to send you a leaden greeting or a steel billet douce, permit me say, extremely differs from a good night's rest at home. From personal experience your correspondent can almost swear it is another thing.

As I write the drums are beating for those, who choose, to attend the funeral of the young man who died yesterday. Poor fellow! he has “fell in” for his last “roll call.” He has heard his last “revielle” and “tattoo.” Like the rest of us, I presume he has loving friends at home who will mourn his unexpected and untimely death, among strangers in a strange land.

The members of our Company are anxious to learn the whereabouts of one Oran Tracy, who left the company on a furlough to visit home, about a week before it left Racine, and has not been back since. Just before we left Racine a letter was received from him stating that he was sick; since then nothing has been heard concerning him. If this should meet the eye of him or his friends I hope it will be noticed. He is regularly sworn into the service of the United States, and is now considered a deserter. If he has been sick and unable to come, he should have written. If any of your readers can give any thing definite in relation to this Tracy, they will confer a favor by addressing a note, or otherwise, to Capt. E. B. GRAY, 4th Regt. Wis. Vol.

For the past day or two the weather has been cold and cloudy, accompanied by large quantities of rain.

The 1st. Wis. Regt. is expected to pass the Relay House this evening. Our Regiment is going down to meet them.

I write in haste, as usual, for the bearer of this, Mr. H. DRUMMOND, is now ready to leave. Mr. H. was a member of our company, but has received an honorable discharge and a pass home, on account of being unable to withstand a soldier's life. He is thought well of by the whole company and they would like to hava him stay with us, but his health will not permit. Co. C. has only one man in the hospital at present, and that is Thorpe, formerly of Plymouth. He undoubtedly has the consumption and will probably be discharged before long.

I almost forgot to mention that I saw Prince Napoleon at the Relay House the other day. It would made no difference if I did not mention it I suppose. He is a little greacy looking Frenchman, with a little of the Napoleon I look. That's all, no more.

As every &c.



Kenosha Times, August 21, 1861

From the War.

A letter from A private of the 4th Regiment, to his friend in this city, has been placed in our hand, from which we make the following extracts:

August 10th, 1861.

You are probably aware of all the details of our trip through to Baltimore. We stopped one week at Camp Dix, Md, when companies F and E were ordered to guard the bridges on the Northern Central Road. The first squad of our company was stationed 5 miles, and the last, 14 miles from Baltimore, I was in a squad of 10 men, encamped in a beautiful ravine, under a “huge old black walnut,” some of the branches 60 feet long. The woods on one side came down to a beautiful stream of water, running within 5 or 6 rods of our camp; on the other side were a few scattering trees and a splendid blackberry hill- Perhaps we did not have a “high old time” picking blackberries. I think we did. But our time of such luxury was cut short, for one afternoon as we were enjoying a pan of the luscious berries, with milk and sugar, we received orders to pack knap sacks, strike tents, and be ready to march at a minutes notice.

At 3 o'clock we marched to the R R station, to await the train containing Co E and the balance of our Co. We were growing impatient, when hark! the “howl of the Badgers” was heard above the roar of the train. The rumor was that we were bound for Washington, but on our arrival at Baltimore, we found we were going only ten miles towards Washington to join the balance of our regiment, which was encamped a the Relay House.

If you ever heard “big swearing” it was then. We were in hopes to go immediately into the field. Our hope were smashed. However, we lived through it, for here I am writing.

Here we have a pleasant spot, on a hill, with big oaks just far enough apart to receive a row of tents and give us ample room for maneuvers. There is a splendid building on the ground which is now used as a hospital. We have but very few sick. Some with measles and some with only colds; about 15 in all. Our hardest work is marching to the drill ground about 1 1/2 miles from camp.

We drill in battallion from 3 1/2 to 4 hours each day and besides have company drill. We are not in possession of information as to how long we shall remain at this camp. We detail 8 or 10 men from each company, besides the police guard, and the guards of the great stone bridge at the junction of the Balt. & Ohio and Washington Rail Roads.


Hudson North Star, August 21-1861

From the Hudson City Guards.

[Allan Dawson, Esq, permits us to make, the following interesting extracts from private. letters from Judge Clapp.]

CAMP RANDALL, near Relay House, Md.
August 19th, 1861.


On Thursday after the date of my last letter to you, Capt. Hobarts company and ours mached to the Pikesville Arsenal, some eight or nine miles from Baltimore, where the to companies remained until Tuesday morning of this week, in guard of the Arsenal. During our sty there but little transpired of interest.

We met with no disturbances except a little interference on the part of secessionists with our sentinels, who in one or two instances snapped guns at the latter. On Monday night an Indiana company came to relieve us, and on Tuesday morning we marched back to Baltimore, and then took the cars to this place to to join the Regiment, It having been encamped here about two weeks. Our camp is about one mile from the Relay House, which is at the junction of the Washington Rail Road with the Baltimore & Ohio R. R., about ten miles from Baltimore. It is on what is called Federal Hill. The post office here is called St. Dennis. Three other companies which had been detailed have also rejoined the regiment, and they now are all together but one company.

We have large numbers detailed daily to attend to guarding the viaduct, to pick up any deserters and suspicious secessionists that may be straying along, also, at the station to examine the cars and take, deserters. Several sessionists have been arrested, one of which shot at a sentinel, wounding him in the hand. Several deserters front our army about Washington, have been arrested. Day before yesterday Frank Harding and I, by order of the Colonel, took three persons who had been arrested as deserters, to Washington and delivered them over to Gen. Mansfield. We took them before him, and by his order conveyed them down town to jail to await his orders.

Yesterday, after getting through with our business we went about the city, visiting the 6th Regiment a short distance out, seeing Fitch, Capt. Dill, and others. They had arrived the day before and were feeling in good spirits. We also visited the 5th Regiment, seeing Enoch Totten, Lieut., and sending my card up at the National Hotel to Miss Eliza T. Wilson, but finding her not in. She is La fille de Regiment.

We expect soon to join the other regiments of our Brigade under Gen. King.

From a letter dated the 11th, we are permitted to extract the following:

What a blessing sleep is—was never more appreciated than in judging of my feelings now and when I wrote you yesterday early. Then I had been to Washington, and owing to the poor hotel accommodations, the night there and excursion, heat—it being the hottest night of the season—had had no fest, and left the Hotel at 3 o’clock in despair of getting any sleep for that night. While in Washington, Frank and I in the discharge of duty, and visiting Wisconsin regiments and places of note in the city, had walked, perhaps fifteen or twenty miles,and that too, in the hottest kind of weather, and with our thickest suit of clothes.— Well, on coming back at night, about 10 o'clock I laid down to rest, but got up at 12 1/2 o’clock to set up with Jo. Harrington, our orderly, who was sick. That indefatigable fellow, who has been upon the go at all hours, performing a vast amount of duty, had all at once the day before run down, and needed winding up and repairs. It was the first time he had been off from duty. I am glad to say that he is about fully restored this evening. Well, I got up to see him, and employed part of my time in writing a letter to you.

Now, although upon guard duty, during the last 24 hours I have had five hours rest, and I feel as bright as a dollar. But while I now write I am reminded that a solemn incident is transpiring in camp. Last night a private in Company D. which has been stationed along the railroad line to guard it,and who was at a tent near the track, and lying outside, when the train came along he awoke, and thinking himself in danger, to escape, in his confusion ran onto the track, and was killed by the cars. The music of our band is now calling the regiment together to attend his funeral, and the sound breaks solemnly upon the airs this quiet Sabbath morning. I am excused from attending from having just come off of duty. We have a fine brass band of twenty one musicians. They have improved wonderfully by constant practice. They play some very sweet pieces, that stir the blood and warm the heart. Charley Allen is the drummer of the band, and he plays with fine taste. Prof. Jones, Billy Hatch, and Frank Smith also do credit for the gallant little town that sent them. I wish the citizens of Hudson could see and hear the band as it marches down in front of the battalion at parade.

Another incident interrupts—Ed. Peabody, who is ill this morning, and is lying in the tent where I am writing, calls for something, and I ask him if he wants the surgeon. He says no, but he would like to have George Chalfant (who is hospital steward.) come and see him. By assidious attention (arising from his lore of his calling) George has won the esteem of every person about him. Our boys look upon him as a perfect Galen, and George will arise at anytime to treat them.

Seventy men each night are detailed for scouts, and they mage in pairs at will, for miles about the camp. They are instructed to keep in ambush, and at places which command distance without their being observed, A well posted scout (and we have many of them in our company) will effectually conceal himself in a bash or the like, and upon a person coming up he will call out. “halt.” If the challenged party does not stop he will call out again, and a third time if the person does not stop. If after these different calls the party does not come to a stand, from the place of concealment will come forth something to the effect, “I am a soldier upon duty, and you must obey.” Then if the party does not halt, the sentry acts according to his own discretion, and is justified in firing. Upon halting a person the soldier questions him as to his business, &c., and if found to be a suspicious character, he arrests him and brings him to camp.— Several persons have been arrested in this way, and two or three of our pickets have been shot at and wounded in two instances. The soldiers enter into the discharge of duty with great alacrity. As a signal of alarm they fire five shots in succession. This alarm is communicated through the sentries into camp, and to headquarters.

We expect orders to march to Washington in a few days, but we know little in regard to our future movements.

All the boys whom you know are well, John Comstock who has been ill is discharged upon its continuance, against his wishes. Our Sergeant Major, Peter Moore, has been removed and is going home this morning:

Kindest regards to all inquiring friends.

Yours as ever, E. A. CLAPP.


Racine Advocate, August 21, 1861

Headquarters 4th Regiment, W. V.
Camp Randall, Md., Aug. 12, 1861.

EDITORS ADVOCATE:—Little or nothing of general interest has transpired in this camp since the date of my last communication.— The daily routine of camp life is scarcely varied, and yet sufficient work is furnished for both mind and body. Every day witnesses some improvement in discipline and drill, and the development of soldierly qualities. Both officers and men seem to realize fully the importance and necessity of thorough preparation. It is comprehended that mere holiday parade and show, glitter and tinsel, will not do; that there are stern realities to be confronted, and a work before us that will require all energy and strength, and courage, and skill. The battle and defeat at Manassas have taught us this; have taught not only our armies but the entire people of the North. We shall probably indulge in no more daydreams, but now thoroughly awake, begin to adjust ourselves to the dimensions of this war —a war involving the grandest and gravest issues ever on trial before the assembled world.

The position occupied by our Regiment, as I have before informed you, is not only one of importance, but of peril. In case of an uprising of the secessionists of Maryland— which daily grows more probable and imminent—we would most certainly be the first to be attacked, that if possible possession might be obtained of the railroads which we guard. Every pains, therefore, is taken to guard against a surprise, Our scouts traverse the entire neighborhood, and the night-watch is most thorough and efficient.

We have now only a few on our sick list, and those few in progress of recovery. Of eight hundred and over on the Surgeon's books, not one has died. You may look for a longer letter in a day or two, A. C. B.


Calumet Republican, August 26, 1861

THE 4TH REGIMENT. - A correspondent of the Milwaukee Sentinel, in the 4th Regiment, writes us follows under date of August 10th:

“The regiment is now encamped on a hill overlooking the whole country for several miles each way. We occupy the grounds and residence of an old secessionist, who is now dead. The Massachusetts 6th (who were here before us,) took possession of it, and used the house, which is a very large and well constructed one, for a hospital.

The house is in the midst of a splendid grove, in which our tents are pitched. We have the best of water near by, and everything convenient.”


Sheboygan Journal, August 28, 1861


Correspondence of the Journal.

MARYLAND, Aug. 17, 1861.

FRIEND MILLS: I believe it is now considered as certain that we stay here for two or three months, at least. The two Brigdier Generals - KING and HAMILTON - appointed from Wisconsin, having formed their brigades without including the 4th Regiment, it is resumed that Gen. DIX will have us remain permanently in the Department of Annapolis. Although the opportunity will not be as great for us to be immediately engaged in the great battle or battles which will certainly transpire before long, still, our position is one of infinite importance, one which requires great activity and vigilance unceasing. If the army of the Potomac should chance to meet with defeat or it should in any way happen that the Rebels cross the Potomac, our position would be made most critical - as we are surrounded by traitors. In that case Baltimore would no doubt be the theatre of our operations. How long before another scene in this bloody drama of the Divided Household will be enacted, is among the uncertainties of human forethought. As you will see by the news from here, the Rebel army is slowly advancing towards the Potomac, with the intention probably of entering Maryland, and afterwards making a demonstration upon Washington.

As the Railroad that passes the Relay House is the only one that leads from the northern States to Washington - one has an opportunity at that point, of seeing the almost fabulous amounts of war implimints, equippages, &c., which are daily being forwarded to that point. From the number of cannon, gun carriages and horses which pass almost daily, I should judge that Artillery was to play an important part in the campaign hereafter. And the large number of ambulances which are being forwarded on to Washington indicate the somebody is going to be hurt. They do not look at all inviting to your correspondent. Not a bit.

At the Union State Convention held in Baltimore a few days ago, Augustus W. Bradford, of that city, was unanimously nominated for Governor. The election comes off in November Mr. Bradford was an ardent supporter of Mr. Douglas in the memorable campaign of 1860. that he will be elected by a large majority no one for a moment doubts.

Some thousand voters in this Regiment are looking forward with some anxiety towards the coming Gubernatorial election in Wisconsin. I believe that Gov. RANDALL would have been the choice of the volunteers, to a man - for the great pains he has taken to make them comfortable, and, consequently contented. But as he has been appointed Minister to Rome, the men in the Regiment, best posted up in such matters, think that H. L. PALMER, of Milwaukee is the person for the Union men in your State to nominate for the Governorship. We have many in this Regiment who have when at home had a word to say in such matters, and their opinions should not be entirely ignored now. Old stagers, like Harrison C. Hobard, H. E. Paine, Senators Loy, S. A. Bean, Boardman and others, belonging to this Regiment representing all the different shades of Wisconsin politics, seem to think that PALMER is the man for you to elect for Governor. I have been so informed upon pretty good authority.

A Court Marshal is now being held at Fort McHenry. Col. Paine and Captains Hobart and Gray, are the officers in attendance from our Regiment. A few cases of desertion have already been disposed of. It is thought that the case of ex-Governor Thomas, better known as the “French Lady,” will be disposed of at the present setting. But this is mere conjecture, as the proceedings are kept as secret as possible.

Peter Moore, the Sergeant-Major of this Regiment, has been removed, and one Moody, formerly of the Massachusetts 8th, appointed in his place. Undoubtedly a change for the better - as Moody is a first class drill master.

We are now “enjoying all the comforts of a home,” having just had board floors placed in our tents, together with tables and stools made after the most approved patterns. In fact we have so many different varieties of furniture that no two pieces are alike. This is not owing so much to the variety in taste as the different kinds of material which compose them. The boys in our tent chain up our table every night for fear it will run off.

For the information of “all whom it may concern,” I will state that the Regiment will be paid off on the last day of this month in pure and yellow gold - not Wisconsin “Stamp-tail.” I have this from Headquarters. It will take from $35,000 to $40,000 to do it. Quite a pile for a small crowd. Health of camp - most excellent.

Hoping something will turn up to make my next more readable, I subscribe myself, yours, &c.,



Janesville Daily Gazette, August 29, 1861

From the Fourth Regiment.

The following is a portion of a letter written by S. L. Smith, of Richmond, Walworth county, a member of company A., 4th regiment:

CAMP RANDALL, Md., Aug. 20.

There are. several companies of secessionists secretly drilling within a few miles of here, and are only waiting for an opportunity to advance upon us; therefore it is necessary for us to be watchful. An attack is expected every night. Company I, who are guarding the railroad ten miles, from here, took forty rifles end and a small-field piece yesterday; they were found secreted in an old house. The company they belong to will be taken if possible.

The weather has been. very warm here until within a few days. For the last four days it has rained nearly all the time, which makes camp life rather disagreeable. There has been a great deal of sickness in the regiment since we left Racine, though only one case has proved fatal. The men are getting better now, and I think with a little cooler weather they will be all right in a short time. Ashbell has been sick ever since we left Racine; he has gone to reside with a family out of camp, thinking that would improve his health. He has missed very much the care of a mother. The rest of the Richmond boys have all had good health, and their spirits have been good.

If you want to find a good farming country, you need not come to Maryland to find it. I have seen no country since leaving Wisconsin that will equal Rock prairie for farming. Through the part of Maryland we have traveled, the country looks pretty hard for tilling, stone and hills being very plentiful.

Times are very hard in this part of the country. Many of the laboring class are reduced almost to the verge of starvation. If such is the case now, what will it be the coming winter? Many of the men say they will have to enlist in the United States service in order to get a living.

The boys have been spending money pretty freely since they were paid off at Racine, and they are now rather short, but I suppose they will get some more the first of next month, which will make all things straight. One soldier was shot through the wrist by a secessionist while guarding the railroad about six or eight miles from camp. The man was caught and is now a prisoner in Fort McHenry; his sentence is death.


Oconto Pioneer, August 29, 1861

FROM THE OCONTO BOYS.—We have been permitted to make the following extracts from a letter written by Mr. EDWARD RAMSEY, a member of the Oconto River Drivers, to W. M. WHITCOMB, Esq. of this place:

RELAY HOUSE, Md., Aug. 22, '61

We have not had a chance at any of the rebels yet, but we are expecting to every day. The regiment is at one of the most important positions, being stationed at the Relay House, guarding a railroad bridge. Should that be destroyed by the rebels, it would cut off communication from the rest of our troops. They have made a commencement here twice to destroy it. There is a gang of men out in all directions every night, and one of the companies captured two cannons and fifty guns the other night, which were hid under a bridge. The same company shot a man last night. They discovered him putting poison in the water, and tried to catch him; but as they couldn't, they fired at him and put two balls through his jacket, which brought him to a stand still - or rather a lay! - That company is stationed about three miles from here.

There is nothing particular that is worth writing about. The boys are all well.

We have got a good Captain and fine Lieutenants, just the finest men on the field, and one of the best Colonels.

Some of the boys wrote to Green Bay that we had a row with Captain LOY, but it is no such thing. They all like him well with the exceptions of three or four that don't know anything, and won't try to learn.“


Evergreen City Times, August 30, 1861

Our Army Correspondence.

Letter from the Fourth Regiment,

August, 21, 1861.

FRIEND ROSS:—We are now enjoying a season of masterly inactivity, nothing occurring to break the dull monotony of camp life in rainy weather, except an occasional rumor of an immediate attack by the Rebels, who are going to cross the Potomac below Washington, take this point, and thus cut off all communication between the Capitol and the North. That would place them virtually in possession of the whole of Maryland, for Baltimore is only waiting a favorable opportunity to- give vent to her traitorous sentiments and designs, and the Government has not now a very strong force stationed at that point. Many of the Southern counties of Maryland are strong secession, and a fair prospect is thus presented of wresting this State from the Union and seriously, threatening Washington. There is no doubt but this is the favorite project of the Rebels just now, because every soldier and all cannons and munitions of war must go through here to reach Washington or Harpers Ferry by Rail Road, and the only telegraphic communication between Washington and the North is through here; so you see it is a very desirable point for the rebels who do not fail to appreciate it.Meantime tho Government is not blind, asleep, nor idle in counteracting these schemes. Cannons have been sent for, and are now on their way here. The places are already dug where they are to be planted in eminently commanding positions, sweeping the whole range of both Rail Roads and the Great Bridge, and which are extremely difficult of access. It is naturally a very strong position, and capable of being made as strong as Manassas.

We should be very happy to have a short interview with Davis, Beauregard and their co-workers in rebellion in about a week's time. “We would bid them a hearty welcome to hospitable graves.” Our boys are weary of inaction and are actually spoiling for a fight; if they are not gratified before long they will commence operations on their own hook.

The physical condition and general appearance of the Regiment presents a marked contrast to what it was two weeks ago. The faces of the men have shortened up by several inches, and wear a more cheerful and lively expression.— The step is more elastic and every appearance of health and fine spirits characterizes tho movements and actions of the men. Company C is the liveliest, most jovial company on the ground. They get up mock drills, dress parades, and general—orders, and other exhibitions, much to the amusement of the neighboring companies, including officers.

The weather for the past week has been very hot, rainy and cold; it rained every day, even Sunday and nights to boot.

Tho utmost enthusiasm prevails throughout the length and breadth of the land; instead of being discouraged and disheartened by the defeat at Bull's Run, it has roused the lion in his lair and now will commence the contest in earnest. Troops arise as if by magic in all parts of the country and pour into Washington by the thousand daily. Competent officers are placed in command. The old veteran Wool is placed in command at fortress Monroe, and is to have his force increased so as to take the offensive. McClellan now commands the largest, best appointed, furnished and equipped army the United States ever owned, and all confidence is felt in his skill and experience by every one, even the enemy acknowledge his merit and say that their boasted Beauregard has got an antagonist worthy of him. That is what Sayers said of Heenan when the latter was a little too much for him. Gen. Banks is pitted against Joseph E. Johnston, who, at the Battle of Bull's Run, acted the part of Blucher at Waterloo, Duke of Magenta at Magenta, and of Dornix at Marengo. Both appear to be trying to look each other out of countenance. Gen. Rosencranz in Eastern Virginia, appears to be too many for Gov. Wise and Albert E. Johnston together. Gen. Fremont's appointment to the command of the army of the west gives universal satisfaction and inspires the utmost confidence and enthusiasm among the masses. The appointment of such men to the direction of affairs is an index of the earnestness and energy with which this war is to be prosecuted. Besides, the blockade is being made more effective. And above all, the negotiations of Secretary Chase in obtaining that $150,000,000 loan has done as much to sustain the government as all its armies. It relieves it from pecuniary embarrassment, and it can now ove on in, majestic strength to the accomplishment of the much desired object, the suppression of the rebellion. The moneyholders entered into the contract a lasting monument to their patriotism upholding the government in its hour of greatest need; and “shows their confidence in its power to maintain itself.

It appears that complaints have reached home of hard fare, untolerable abuse, and grievances almost inendurable. Now the of it is this. There were some men they joined, expected that when we marched, it meant being carried by Rail road; and when we halted, it meant

being quartered in the nicest buildings the place afforded, or putting up at taverns and living on nick-nacks. In this they have been partially disappointed. Our marching has all been by Rail Road. - Our living is good. We have Pork, Fresh beef, Potatoes, Rice, Beans, Fresh Bread, Sugar, Coffee, &c., a good, wholesome living. Our tents are floored and have straw beds. Our drill is not very heavy and taken all together we have a good old time.

Another class entitled to more consideration, are those that have been sick. - Not having much appetite they could not eat, and having no accommodations for sickness, they have got the blues and every thing looks gloomy. But they are getting better and think better of it. As for our officers, from Colonel down to Corporal, they are among the best in the whole service.

Yours, &c., L. C. BARTLETT.


Wisconsin Daily Patriot, September 7, 1861
Quiner Scrapbooks Correspondence of the Wisconsin Volunteers, 1861-1865

From the Fourth Regiment.

CAMP RANDALL, Md., near the Relay House,
September 2nd, 1861.

Editors Patriot; —The Wisconsin 4th Regiment is still at this place, where we have been laying since four weeks to night doing police duty for some twenty miles of railroad track on the W. & B. line, and Baltimore & Ohio line besides we have been covering a large extent of country with our pickets.

I suppose I can tell you very little about. our doings here, as I see you at home are pretty near as well informed of our movements here, as we are ourselves. We have lost six men since the regiment got together, one in Whitewater, one in Racine, one at Annapolis Junction, one between Annapolis Junction and Baltimore, all by accident, and two by disease and we have had two wounded while on picket duty by the Rebels, but none killed.

We are in General King's Brigade, and orders two days since to hold in readiness at an hour’s notice, and that is the condition of the camp, all unsettled and expectation The general opinion is, among men whose opinion is worth most, that we are on the eve of a very decisive battle, to occur at most within ten days and a very hard one it must be. The Rebels are flushed with the, Bull Run success and we are mad at the defeat. In the next battle, there can be no retreat on our side before a retreat will take place by our troops there will be more slain than in any other battle in American history. Perhaps I overrate the determination of our troops, but I don't believe I do.

What do you think of Fremont's move at St. Louis and Missouri, declaring martial law for the state, and confiscating the property and negroes of Secessionists? I think this is right it is what our Government ought to have done in all places where they had the power, it would have had a salutary effect on those men here who are in the Southern army and we are here protecting their property. Now, Now, let this be of practice, to confiscate this kind of property, and you will see a difference in thirty days. H.


Sheboygan Journal, September 4, 1861


Correspondence of the Journal.

MARYLAND, Aug, 21, 1961,

FRIEND MILLS:—It is amusing to read the newspapers from Wisconsin and other parts of the North. There is not one of them that comes within gun-shot of the truth on any subject connected the movements of the troops in this direction. For instance, one paper says that four companies of the Wisconsin Fourth arrived at Washington a few days ago; another states that it is at or near Harper's Perry, under Gen. Banks; while another positively asserts that it is at Sandy Hook; and by the Milwaukee Wisconsin, I see that five companies of the 4th are near the Relay House, together with five companies of the Penn. Second, These different accounts of our whereabouts lead many of our friends at home to direct their letters at the different places mentioned, and causes a needless delay of most of our mail matter, which, to say the least, is provoking, The Fourth Regiment, W, A. M. is stationed near the Relay House, Md., every company of it, and has been since the 30th ult., with a fair prospect of remaining for some time to come. All letters to this regiment should, for the present, be directed to Baltimore, Md.

As foreshadowed in my last letter, we begin to snuff the way afar off. The guard, which is daily increased, and the advice given the men by their commanders to be cautions and act with extra vigilance, show that the secession “movement” in this State is about ripe and ready for the knife. Every night when we lie down to sleep, we expect before morning to hear the “long roll? beat. (That means, “fall into line of battle”) Whatever may be our fate, we are determined to leave our mark somewhere, We all think—we know —that some of us have seen home, friends, and all that is dear to us, for the last time. But as each one is assured with the thought that he is not to be one of them, our future is seen only on the bright side. This is well.

The members of Co, C. (Sheboygan Co. Volunteers,) bought a beautiful silver pitcher in Chicago, with the following engraved upon it:


This was a voluntary gift from the members of the company to gentleman who had in many ways aided and assisted them, from the time of their enlistment up to their departure from Racine.— They could think of no more appropriate manner of testifying their appreciation of his many kindnesses, both from heart and purse, than by presenting him with the above mentioned slight token of regard. “Long may he wave,” say Co. C.

I learn from private letters that a new company has been formed in Sheboygan, Co. C., 4th Reg. W. A. M., send their regards to the “Zouave Cadets,” Sheboygan, with the request that they meet them at Richmond on New Year’s day, The latch string will be out. This invitation, Capt, Gray assures me, is “official.”

I presume you have seen in all the papers that the Grand Army of Beauregard was going to make a big splurge at the Relay House on the 18th inst.— last Sunday, Well, Sunday came, and and no Beauregard, no army, and no nothing unusual appeared. That we are to have a “Cotillion” in this vicinity shortly is beyond peradventure.— Our regiment, of course, will join in the dance, if partners can be selected to suit.

We have battalion drill about four hours each day, including sham fights, &c., We could muster only about 200 of the 900 men here on dress parade today, on account of the large number of men it takes for picket and other guards. Company C reported only 14 men present, all told. Other companies in about the same proportion.

Business of all kinds in this State is at present entirely prostrated. Baltimore city, however, appears to be prospering, but it is all owing to the many troops daily passing through, and stationed at and around it. What the poor white people around about here are to do to keep from famishing the coming winter is more than I can conjecture. As a general thing they appear to be an ignorant and indolent class. Many of those about here live at present upon provisions given them from our camp— of which, thank God, we have quite a surplus. In our mess of five we furnish provisions enough to feed a poor widow woman together with her several children.

From our encampment we can see for miles on either side. The prospect is indeed enchanting. Scores of Italian villas dot the hills and groves in every direction, and as far as the eye can reach, They are are occupied principally by people of leisure as summer residences. Five and six hundred dollars per acre is no unusual price for hills and rocks in this vicinity.

I am glad to be able to again state that the health of the regiment is most excellent.

Our Chaplin, Rev, A. C. BARRY (Episcopal,) holds Divine service every Sunday. His sermons are full of vigor and originality, consequently well received by his fellow-soldiers. He is beloved and respected by all of us.

Yours, as ever,



Evergreen City Times, September 6, 1861

Our Army Correspondence.

Letter from the Fourth Regiment.

August 28, 1861.

FRIEND ROSS: Here we are yet, stationed on the summit of Mount Pisgah; stationary in reality, but in motion as respects our division and department. We are now in Gen. McClellan's division. He is now in command of Gen. Dix' division, Gen. Banks' column and Gen. Rosesncranz' command, in addition to his own army in Virginia. We are now, as far as paper can transfer us, transferred to the Grand Army of Virginia. This utmost activity prevails in forwarding troops to Washington. Eight Regiments passed through here in 24 hours, one day last week.

I am rejoiced to hear that Wisconsin is doing her duty, in supporting Fremont in the valley of the Mississippi. It is the only way in which this rebellion can be crushed. The people must arise in their might, and stake their all as a willing sacrifice upon the altar of American Liberty, if they would preserve inviolate that glorious Constitution which we have ever held sacred as being the richest boon ever inherited by a heavon-favored people, and as being the great bulwark of free institutions. Have we so degenerated from the patriotism of our Fathers that we cannot uphold the glorious structure which they reared at the cost of treasure, suffering, blood, and thousands of lives? Will we claim to be the sons of heroic sires, and sit still comfortably at home while traitor hands are busy in wresting from us all that we hold dear for ourselves, and hope to transmit to our posterity? If this rebellion is successful, it is but the beginning of the end. It will add our beloved country to the list of nations the inscription of whose ruin is, They wore, but they are not! In crushing this rebellion every energy must be aroused, every never strung; every man must put shoulder to the wheel; thousands of lives must be sacrificed, millions of treasure expended, homes made desolate and the voice of wailing be heard through the length, and breadth of our land. In contemplating these results many among us shrink from the task, try to shirk the responsibility and cry peace, peace. Peace is very desirable and most devoutly wished for by all, but desirable as it may be, and pleasing to contemplate, let us consider the price at which it is to be bought. Shall it be by dismembering, breaking up and destroying our Republican Government and institutions? Shall it be by bowing our heads and kneeling in the dust to the slave oligarchy? Shall it be by surrendering the Freeman's scepter, the elective franchise, and the accompanying right of the majority to rule? Shall it be by […] of felons and traitors? All this and much more is held as the price of peace by those who are in armed rebellion against the Government. Are we ready to pay for it? We must either do it or put forth our utmost strength and sustain the hands of the Administration, and thus bring this war to an honorable and speedy termination. Though it may cost blood and treasure, I believe every patriot will choose the latter method of securing peace.

Our position here is comfortable - our living good - health very good - and we are contented, and as happy as circumstances will admit.

One night last week, about nine o'clock, 5 shots were fired in the direction of the Relay House, which was the signal by which the guard were to alarm the camp in case of an attack. In an instant all was activity and commotion. In less than five minutes every man was under arms. Every man turned out; cooks, guard sick and lame; all eager for a fight. Each man was furnished with 20 rounds of ball cartridges and caps, and a good proportion of them had revolvers and bowie knives. While this was going on the Colonel had mounted his horse and proceeded towards the Relay to find out the cause of the alarm. When we found, much to our chagrin, that it was a regiment going through to Washington. Our guard cheered them, when five of the soldiers fired off their guns, for a salute. The Colonel expressed his perfect satisfaction at the eagerness of the men and hoped that he could soon have a chance to gratify their ambition.

Next morning our pickets brought in two citizens which they caught stealing peaches. There had been several complaints made by the inhabitants about the abuses committed by the soldiers in robbing orchards, breaking down the trees, &c., and the Colonel had talked pretty strongly to the pickets. So they marched those chaps into camp, each with a bad, the two containing about three bushels of peaches. An eager crowd immediately gathered around them and followed them to the Colonel's tent, where the peaches were deposited and the culprits marched to the guard house. When the Regiment formed for battalion drill, the following general orders were read by the Adjutant: That the prisoners be marched at the head of the Battalion to and from the drill ground with the peaches on their backs, escorted by the servants, waiters, &c., of the camp armed with broomsticks, and such other weapons as they might select; that at 3 o'clock P. M., there shall be a court martial consisting of the 8th corporals of each company; which order was duly executed. They were marched nearly to miles to the drill ground amid the shouts of the soldiers and the jeers of the citizens, whose verdict was, “served them right.” It produced the most fun we have had in camp in some time. They were sentenced to return the peaches that night to the owner, guarded by the pickets that captured them. It has a good tendency, relieving our camp of the stigma of abuses that citizens were committing in our name.

Yesterday the Regiment was vaccinated, which is a precaution well taken, as the Small Pox is raging furiously in the enemy's camp only a few miles distant.

Yours, &c.,

The 4th Regiment Going to Washington.

[From our Occasional Correspondent.]

IN MARYLAND, Aug. 30, 1861.

H. N. ROSS - DEAR SIR: Perhaps you are at a loss to know why I have not written in so long a time; but as nothing of any great importance has transpired that was not immediately reported to you, I did not deem it necessary to repeat any facts or incidents related by by others.

As regards the whereabouts of this, the 4th Wisconsin Regiment, it is needless for me to give any information, for I believe its encampment near the famous Relay House, is no secret to any one in Wisconsin. But its removal to Washington, where it will join the Wisconsin 2d, 5th, and 6th, and with those regiments form a Brigade, (as I am informed to be under General King,) which will take place in a few days, as we were informed last night by a telegraphic despatch from our Colonel, H. E. Paine, who went to Washington to accomplish what he has so nobly done, may not be so generally known to your readers, yet it is in fact pure truth, and you and all the friends of the 4th will do well to direct your letters to Washington, as our departure in a very few days for that place is a fixed fact. Last night after the roll call “Capt. Gray” announced the news to Company C, who were indeed pleased with the change, as they say they did not go into service to guard Rail roads and Bridges forever, however dangerous and important that may be, but a desire to be placed in front of the fire where they can have a chance to do for their country what they have so long wished for.

I hope next time you hear from a battle you will hear more encouraging news than heretofore, and when you hear from one of the 4th again, it will undoubtedly be after a hot fight, in which I hope they will give a good account for themselves.

The boys are, with the exception of a very few, in good health and spirits, and since the news of our departure was re-[…] and whistling going on in the camp.

There are only three members of Company C in the Hospital now, who were very sick when taken there, but are rapidly recovering. The Sheboygan boys stand the hardships of a soldier's life better than their friends expected they would. In fact not one of them has been in the Hospital yet, though it has been visited by a number of the strongest members of our Company, who are all doing well now and full as strong as ever.

It is about breakfast time, and I judge from the odors floating around that our cook managed to get us a good breakfast; of that, however, I can judge better after tasting his luxuries. I must hasten to perform this interesting duty, after which, those who are not on guard, cooks and all, must “fall in,” for battalion drill. During the few days we remain here, this will be our principal camp duty. You will excuse this short letter till you hear from me or some other member of Company C in camp.

Send your paper as often as possible. I suppose, and in fact I am convinced, that you send us papers every week, which, as well as some letters from our friends, never reach us.


G. W.


Sheboygan Journal, September 11, 1861


Correspondence of the Journal.

MARYLAND, Aug. 28, 1861.

FRIEND MILLS:—I was in Baltimore all day yesterday, and thinking that your readers might wish to hear what was going on in that famous, or rather notorious city, I take this occasion to write you. Since the recent order of the Secretary of War, Baltimore has been constantly filled with the new levies of troops, who are either in transit or temporarily stopping there awaiting orders. The great share of them are ununiformed and but poorly drilled, and they present rather an awkward appearance; at least in the estimation of us old soldiers, (ahem!) Some six or seven Regiments are stationed at Baltimore at present for the purpose of keeping the Disunionists in check, among the most notable of which is Duryea’s regiment of Zouaves. They are encamped on Federal Hill, about a mile from the Post Office, which they have commenced fortifying my throwing up entrenchments, &c. This looks as if breakers were seen ahead. Every thing appears to be smooth on the surface in Baltimore, as I visited the shipping, and principal parts of the city alone and unmolested, though my uniform showed very plainly what and who was within. But the fact of such papers as the Exchange, Republican and The South, the most rabid secession sheets published in North America, being published here daily, discloses the prevailing current of opinion, And to tell the real truth, Government dare not, to-day undertake to suppress them. Why, you can imagine.

You have undoutbedly seen Jeff Davis’ late prononciamento “annexing Maryland to the Southern Confederacy. Yes, sir; its a fact, that according to “Jeff” we are now stationed in the C. S. A. Well, we are all satisfied at present. The climate and the face of the country generally is about the same here as it the United States, and the people speak the same language here as you foreigners do, We like the Confederacy so well that we propose to extend our acquaintance considerably further South.

We had another false alarm on Friday night last, and all turned out in “battle-array.” Before we were dismissed the Colonel commended our promptness in falling into line, and remarked that it showed that the men “were evidently spoiling for a fight.” After having received three cheers, he remarked that he “sympathized with the men in their affliction.”

Since my last we, have lost two more of our men. One, belonging to Co, F., died in the Hospital of typhoid fever. Another, belonging to Co. I, was accidently shot by a comrade. Both were buried on Sunday,

The Court Martial which I mentioned in my last as being held in Baltimore, adjourned yesterday, after disposing of some twenty-five cases, Its doings will be printed in a few days It is probable that one:of the soldiers of that Regiment will be sent to the Dry Tortugas in the Gulf.

Our Colonel went to Washington this morning for the purpose of procuring a position for our Regiment in the advance column of the army. I do not think he need be so confounded anxious about it, as we shall undoubtedly have plenty of chances to stop cannon balls before the war closes. All of us prefer staying where we now are, for we never expect to obtain a better place— or one anywhere near as healthy and comfortable. When we soldiers once cross the Potomac, good-bye to all the little comforts of a “well-regulated household” — farewell to soft bread and roast beef.

Some strange and foolish rumors reached us from Sheboygan in regard to our Regiment. Among others that great dissatisfaction existed among the men on account of ill-treatment received from their officers; that most of them (the officers) were totally unfit for their positions, &c., &c. Now, whoever started such silly trash was either a fool or a knave, and did it for the purpose of injuring the good name of the Regiment, or some individual connected there with. It is true that the officers draw the lines closer now, than was necessary while at Racine, but none too much—if indeed enough —to insure discipline and good order. But, as yet, I have not heard of a solitary case of complaint, for ill-treatment by officers. And as for the efficiency of the officers yon can judge for yourself when I tell you that they are instructed daily by Col. Paine, who is himself a graduate of West Point, and a first class military scholar. That there are some Damphools among them who, the more they are instructed the less they learn, I will not deny, but they are not of Co. “C,” I can assure you.

The health of the Regiment is as good as could be expected here, at this time of year, for you must know that this is the sickly period. Corp. Hawkins, Greeley, Burton, Allmann and Eastwood, of Co. “C” are in the hospital—the two former pretty sick, with a fever which to-day seems to assume a Typhoid. They have as good care taken of them, as they would have if they were at home, and are not in any way dangerous. Yours, as ever,



Oconto Pioneer, September 11, 1861

Letter from a Driver.

Aug 31, 1861.

FRIEND GINTY:—Reasons for delays are so obvious, in these eventful days of our country, that I do not consider it necessary to apologize for not having written to you sooner. I was just going to write you, when DAN. BRADLEY kindly relieved me of the task, by writing a much more lengthy communication than I have ever found time to gather at once. I deem it a duty which we owe to those kind hearts and hands which we left behind, who bid us “God speed” to the battle-field in defence of our country, that we should try and favor both one and all with a knowledge of where our little band of freemen are, &c.; and it shall be done in some way, and the only true one to reach them all is through your valuable journal.

We still remain at the Relay House, where we were were when BRADLEY wrote you. Some little changes have occurred, but, aside from this, there is nothing extraordinary to relate. The most important change is, that the Oconto River Drivers are at present a regiment by themselves, guarding the Railroad between Relay House and Annapolis Junction, a distance of nine miles, Our tents are pitched along the road, about half a mile apart, with from five to seven men in each. Some have better quarters than others, for I have possession of a good house once occupied by a rabid secessionist, who threatened to destroy the road, but of late has found it is a wrong climate for him to live in; “sensible man!” — for, if he wishes to live, he has pursued the right course to prolong his days, at least for a few months, we hope. Sergeant JAMES O'HARA has possession of a house under similar circumstances. The boys all feel like colts let loose, to have such fine fare. Fruit is very abundant, especially peaches, and the loyal citizens supply us amply, and the secessionists also, through fear, I suppose; their sympathy for the rebel cause is great. An “old maid,” who owns a farm and some twenty slaves near here, says, that if she could save the South by wailing to her knees in blood, she would gladly do it; I infer from this that she has been anti-Union for some time,–and from all appearances the opposite sex appear to be willing she should remain so. Some adventurous Yankee might yet marry the property with the “old maid” thrown in, but T think he would find it a “poor spec,” and eventually remark, like 'the Paddy who had the choice of being hung or married,

“The bargain’s had on every part;
The wife's the worst—drive on the cart.”

This part of Maryland is nearly divided between Union and dis-Union; and were it not for our presence, this country would see “brother against brother” in the saddest sense of the term. It is a pity to see such a beautiful State as this so full of treason to the Government which gave it birth. We have an opportunity of seeing all the troops that are now pouring into Washington. I will merely say that there are enough going at present, as no estimate of tho amount can be made now. The sequel will plainly show. The three months men are nearly all coming back; we see them pass every day. The troops all look well, and are generally of a better grade than at first.

The weather is very cool at present, and affords an excellent chance for rapid progress in the “school of the soldier.” We drill in squads every day; the Regiment drills as usual. The general health of the whole Regiment is greatly improved by the change in the weather, but as for nearly all the “Drivers,” they needed no such change to retrieve their sick list, The increase of Army rations made every man satisfied, while that of pay is all that could be desired. But, these men did not come here for pay; and if they got enough to eat and wear, it is all they ask–though undoubtedly they will get more.

We have at last received news that we shall move to Washington in a few days, to join Gen, KING'S Brigade; so you may expect, when you hear of us again, that we are with them. All hands have been anxious to go forward, and be in the next battle; we shall have an opportunity now. To those who are at home, the boys have only this to say:–That any young men who are single, and able-bodied, and have not much so do, their highest and most sacred duty is to join the forces of the United States at once; and whoever does this must not expect to find it play–there is more truth than poetry in it, But why stay at home, when the most dangerous crisis that our Government ever experienced is at hand,— You may be killed; but if you are, you may be sure that you die a noble death. Would not any man feel willing to die, could he fall as nobly and as honorably as did the lamented Gen. Lyon? Away to the battle-field, then!—you that are doing nothing, we mean. Come forth, and redeem yourselves and your country! You may die, if you stay at home; and, still worse, your country may fall for the want of your services. Could you ever offer an atonement that would suffice for such a crime? No, never!

Millions of loyal citizens are accomplishing all that they can by staying at home-—feeding us, and sending us arms, &c., &c. Such men are serving their country; bet let no man stand idle— These are words which your brothers, on the verge of a battle, send you. If we fall, fill the ranks is our only request,— We shall move to Washington soon. A battle is expected daily. We shall be counted in that, you may rest assured, No more at present.

Truly yours, U. H. PEARSALL,
Orderly Sergeant, Company H.,
Oconto River Drivers.


Oswego Commercial Times, September 14, 1861

War Correspondence.
Correspondence of the Oswego Commercial Times.
September 10, 1861.

Thinking you might be pleased to hear a few words of the welfare of Col. Paine’s Wisconsin regiment to which I am attached, I improve the opportunity to say that we are in fighting order. The life of your correspondent has been in peril, but he has dedicated himself to the service of his country, and if he falls hopes to be in the foremost ranks. My life, in my estimation, is but a small sacrifice if by it I contribute anything in re-establishing the rights and the glory of my country. I inherited from my father a free country, and the same shall be transmitted to my children, or I fall in the glorious attempt. Have no fears that we will not succeed, The disaster at Bull Run instead of disheartening the troops here, only had a tendency to awaken new enthusiasm in each breast and a fixed determination to wipe out the ignominy of that day. Nothing would suit our regiment better than to hear the word “forward,” but we await the proper time patiently. What is true of us I have no doubt is true of the rest of the troops in this section. Our promptness may be illustrated by a little incident that happened the other night at about half past 10 o'clock, after we had turned in and extinguished our lights for the night. We heard firing in the direction of the Relay House, near the Viaduct Bridge, where we have posted night and day a strong guard. It so happened that the shots were the exact number to be given by our guards as a signal of an attack being made upon them.— In a moment Col. PAINE was in the saddle, the long roll was beaten, and in just ten minutes from the first alarm, 800 men (that being all we have in camp) were under army and formed in line of battle. But it turned out to be a false alarm. The shots were fired by a Boston regiment en route for Washington as a salute to our guards.

Regiments are rapidly passing here on the way to Washington. Over 7,000 men passed through here on one occasion, within three days, and still they come with horses, ambulances, artillery, and all the implements of war. Keep your ears open for the roar of artillery, for ere long you will hear of one of the bloodiest battles ever fought on this continent, and mark you, when our army strikes again it will be like a thunderbolt! If the traitorous hordes of JEFF. DAVIS withstand the stock, they may be considered the chivalry of the age but no such glory awaits them. Thousands of brave men must fall on that day, but victory must be ours.

We hold here the key of the whole operations, and if this point should be wrested from us, then farewell Washington and the grand army. But Gen. DIX knows to whom he has entrusted its keeping. He has great confidence in Col. PAINE and in our regiment. We shall soon have a new supply of artillery.

Let those at home send papers and write letters. It does a soldier good to get news from friends. More anon. D.


Wisconsin State Journal, September 17, 1861

Honors to the Brave.

COL. PAINE, of the Fourth Wisconsin Regiment has issued the following general order:

HEADQUARTERS 4th Reg't Wis. Vol.
Camp Randall, in Maryland.
September 6th, 1861.

The colors of the regiment which are about to be furnished by the Government, shall be placed at the close of the war one in the Senate Chamber and the ether in the Assembly Chamber at Madison in the State of Wisconsin.

Within one month after every battle in which the regiment shall be engaged, the surviving officer highest in rank shall cause a careful examination to be made into the conduct of all the members of the regiment of every class and rank and shall cause the names of the five most distinguished for heroic behaviour on the battlefield, together with the name and date of the battle, to be embroidered in gold within a wreath of gold on each of the regimental colors.

The name of the highest surviving officer may be included in the five upon the written recommendation of not less than nine-tenths of the survivors of the battle.

This order shall be read before the regiment every Sunday at dress parade and also on the occasion of the consecration of the regimental colors.

By command of Col. H. E. PAINE.
L. D. ALDRICH, Adjutant.


Sheboygan Journal, September 18, 1861


Correspondence of the Journal.
MARYLAND, Sept. 9, 1861.

FRIEND MILLS: - Your readers will undoubtedly be surprised to learn that we are still encamped near the Relay House, as we were to have left here one week ago to-day, but circumstances have willed it otherwise. Col. PAINE received orders to move the regiment to Washington one week ago, but we are detained here on account of a petition, accompanied with upwards of a thousand names, having been sent to Gen. DIX, praying that the regiment be permitted to be encamped here permanently. The petitioners pray this, I understand, on account of the good behaivor of the men belonging to the regiment, during their stay here. As none of the soldiers are allowed to take even a single apple or peach without asking permission of the owner, the people in this vicinity have been free from all petty annoyances of this kind—quite the reverse with the regiment (Massachusetts 6th) whose place we took.— The Colonel is nervously anxious to be placed in the brigade of Gen. KING, and may succeed in a few days; it is possible, however, that we winter at this very point.

Large quantities of troops and munitions of war are passing here daily, or rather I should say, nightly, as most all such movements are now made in the night time. But few indeed, I apprehend, know the amount of men, &c., now in the vicinity of Washington.— There is only one person that I have had the honor to converse with, who knows the precise number of men, and all about it, even more than McClellan himself, and that is L. C. G., of Washington, late of Sheboygan. He assures me that the country is safe, but desires me not to mention it to anyone. I am consequently as silent as the grave.

A U. S. Paymaster was here on Wednesday, and paid off the entire regiment in gold and U.S. Treasury notes—payed taking his choice. It took $40,000 to pay off the whole regiment, of which Co. C received $3,100. It would be useless to inform you that the “bould soger boys” are enjoying high life about these days, and they do live, as I said before in one of my letters, on “oysters and peaches and cream,” and no fibbing. We buy fresh oysters here in camp for ten cents a peck, and peaches for seventy-five cents a bushel—cheap enough, The members of Co. C have sent upwards of 31,000 home to Sheboygan.

By private advices from Sheboygan, I learn that some one has taken the pains to circulate reports that the members of Co. C were awfully misused by their superior officers-~so much so that some of them (the men) had threatened to shoot the Captain when a proper opportunity offered. Now I will here state, once for all, that all such reports are as false as they are foolish, and whoever took the pains to put them in market did it for the purpose of injuring either the company or some of its officers. Every member of the company will bear me out in the statement the they are perfectly satisfied with their officers, and the treatment received from them, and that they never have had, and never expect to have, occasion to regret the day they chose their present officers. But enough—it is not worth while to think about.

While I write many soldiers about camp are making themselves boistrous over the rumored death of Jeff. Davis. I have no desire to grow merry because of the death of any man, but when it come to think how many lives will be saved (possibly my own among the rest) by this one man's death,I Can see no just reason for gloomy feelings. “Jeff. Davis” has been the war cry of the Rebels; may it not be their death knell?

The weather, since my last, has been delightful. Regular soldier weather, just cool enough day times for drilling comfortably, and splendid nights for sleeping. The health of the regiment never was better since we left Racine.

I wish something of interest would turn up to write you, but I have little hopes of anything for a week or two.

Yours, &c. HIGH PRIVATE.


Hudson North Star, September 18, 1861



EDITOR STAR:—You will see from the heading of this, that we have not changed our quarters since I wrote you last. We have been held in readiness to march at a moment's warning, for the past week, but have not received the said warning as yet—I think it a matter of some doubt whether we move at present.

We were informed that we had been assigned to Gen. King's Brigade—now composed of the 2nd, 5th and 6th Regiments, Wisconsin Volunteers—but have not yet ascertained that this is true. To day, it is said that a petition numerously signed by the inhabitants of this and the two adjoining counties, asking that we remain here, had been sent to the War Department, and that the Department had decided to comply with the prayer of the petition. I trust this is not so, as it would be gross injustice to the officers and men composing the regiment. I think that the very reasons given asking that we remain, are the strongest reasons for our being sent forward. During the stay of other Regiments at this place, great complaint was made by the people, of the soldiers committing depredations upon their property particularly upon their gardens. No occasion for complaints of this kind have been given by the men of this Regiment; but to the contrary, at the request of Col. Paine, the men have refrained from ever going upon the premises of any that objected to their coming there, except in the discharge of their duties. Now,a good soldier is a cross between a saint and hero, and is certainly called upon to exercise the virtues of both. Our duties here call into action the virtues of the saint more than the hero. The history of the world, from the beginning up to the present time, has shown that all saints are heroes, but the reverse of this is far from true, for the same authority shows that many who have established their claim to the title of hero (at least in its common acceptation) have shown quite as clearly that they had no claims to the title of saints. Men who will faithfully discharge the arduous and tedious duties required of us here, would never run, on the field of battle, To suppose that our men have been so sparing of the property who are openly denouncing the Government, and declaring their sympathy for the rebels, from inclination, is not to be supposed, and the only reason for it that can be given is that they are good soldiers, and have done so in obedience to the orders of their superiors, and the reward of this good behavior, is to be, the orders of the War Department to remain where we are. In war, the post of honor is the post of danger, and having proved ourselves faithful over a few, it is but right that we should be keepers over many. If the faithful discharge of our duties, has earned us the privilege of remaining in the rear, we shall be very likely to take some other course to enable us to get to the front, where we desire to be. Daily, regiments composed of men vastly interior to ours in physical ability, the general character of the men, discipline and drill, are passing us, on the way to the scene of action, while we are compelled to stay here doing the drudgery of guard duty. True, the work we are doing is as necessary to be done as the fighting is, but it is not true that it is necessary that the best soldiers should be employed in doing it. During our stay here the regiment has made rapid improvement in their drill, and are now entirely qualified to go into action. where they earnestly desire to be. I trust and hope that the Department will not tamper with the spirits of so good a Regiment in such a manner.

The report that we-were to move forward immediately, and the receiving their pay for the last two months has served to rouse the men up, and the camp has been more than usually lively during the week, but this last report has cooled their ardor wonderfully, and the Department, for their action, receive at their hands, our “curses, not loud but deep.”

The members of Company “G” think they have great cause of complaint against the gentlemen who took charge of the uniforms sent home from Racine. For each and every package placed in the box in which they were sent, he was paid by the soldiers more than double what be himself said it would cost to take them home, viz. he was paid ten cents apiece would pay for it, and they paid him twenty-five. On the arrival of the articles in Hudson—so letters from their friends there, recently received here state—they were required be the gentleman who had so kindly taken charge of them, to pay from twenty-five to fifty cents. for the conveyance of each package in the box. A more contemptable swindle was never perpetrated. Would it not be well for the County Committee to look out this matter and before they demand a return of the uniforms sent home by the members of the company, to either repay the amount paid for the transportation of them, or compel the man who extorted it from them, to refund it. I turn him over to you with this statement of the facts, trusting that you will do your utmost to prevent this kind of swindling being perpetrated on the absent soldiers—or at least, will expose the perpetrator. The fact that the county committee claim the uniforms as the property of the county, does not please the boys much. They evidently supposed, that when the County made them a donation of the uniforms, that they conveyed the the title in fee-simple, and that they became thereby the sole owners and proprietors thereof, but it seems they were mistaken. That a better use will be made of the uniforms in the hands of the committee than would have been had they been left scattered around the county. I have no doubt, but I think the committee could hare had the posession of them, and the disposal of them, simply by asking for it, and thereby, saved the feelings of the boy.s

The 'Star' of the 28th ult. came into comp to-day. I am glad that you have come out so boldly in support of the Government in prosecuting this war. Those who have remained at home, can much better employ their time and means in devising ways and means for supporting and encouraging those who have gone forth to take part in this contest, than in creating a disunion at home. Now, the army is united by a common feeling; that of devotion to the Country. They have not deemed it neccessary or expedient to enquire whether the officers under whom they are called upon to volunteer, were Democrats or Republicans, but simply whether they were devoted to the cause, and I believe that Democrats will fight equally well under a Republican or a Democratic captain. It is strange indeed, if those who remain at home, cannot do what it is necessary for them to do now, to aid in carrying on the war, as well under one as the other. There is, and can be but one issue before the people until this war is ended,and that is, for or against the Government. No half-way man can, or should be tolerated. No man who is not earnest, sincere, and active in his devotion to the country now, should be placed in any position. And he who is made so should be placed in the present.

Squad No, 3 is called to supper, and the tardy man at that call is not the


The Manitowoc Herald, September 19, 1861


Sept. 10 1861.

DEAR HERALD:—Our fond expectations of a speedy removal from here, have received a dash of cold water, cooling our ardor not a little, by countermanding orders. It is now impossible to say how long we may stay,The cause of our nonremoval, or one cause, might have been a petition sent tn to the War Department by the inhabitants within the circle of our pickets, and which had over fifteen hundred signatures, requesting that this regiment be kept here permanently. This speaks volumes for the gentlemanly conduct of the troops, and Wisconsin may well be proud of this testimonial to the manliness of her sons.

The complaints of stolen fruit have been remarkably few. Col, Paine has spoken to the pickets once or twice, requesting them not to take the fruit of friend or foe, and our Col's request is as binding as his command - as well and better heeded by the men.

The charge of stealing fruit have been unjustly cast upon the pickets, but I have heard of none since the summary treatment inflicted upon three poor fellows caught with loaded bags on their backs, in a peach orchard. They were escorted thro' camp, with appropriate music - the Rogues March - and, for a body guard, had assigned then the waiters of the regiment. After an hour's sport—fun for us, but death to them—they were released; with the unnecessary advice, to never let our pickets catch them stealing peaches.

We may go into winter quarters here though if we should there would be some grumbling. We are all aching for a move and none more so than our gallant Col. His ceaseless efforts may procure us a position, and I sincerely hope it.

The rumor of Jeff. Davis death has been floating about in camp for the last four or five days, partly believed. The general belief is that it is true. If so, then Providence has struck for us the greatest blow, yet. With the acknowledged head, and the whole life, the embodiment of secession gone, the rebellion is as good as squelched. There are others at the South of as great intellect as Davis, but none who so embody the qualities of the statesman and warrior none who can supply his place. The “right man in the right place,” is gone, and they can't fill it.

How different would have been the reception of this news one year ago! Then the entire nation would have wept a lost son - have mourned a loss irreparable.— Posterity would have bean glad to mention the name of Jefferson Davis, in connection with American history But now, how great a change! He goes to that last deep, and his grave is watered only by the tears of his adherents in the rebellion. while twenty millions heap upon it a monument of curses, which which will sink him into oblivion. Such is the traitors doom. Thus Arnold died. Thus has Davis died.

Insane rejoicings of his death, we should not indulge in; but when we remember how many lives might have been sacrificed had he lived, the heart of every parent who have a son in the army, will feel lighter, and grateful to the Providence which has removed him.

We received our pay last Wednesday; since when we have been living on a higher scale, than is down in Uncle Sams bill of fare. Oyster stows, peaches and cream, all the delicacies we can procure from Baltimore, furnish high living.

Oysters can be procured in camp at ten cents a bushel, and large luscious peaches for a trifle. Fruit of all kinds are brought to our doors, and easily purchased. Owing to the large amount of fruit eaten, is attributable the excellent state of health of the troops. The hospital is almost a useless institution. While disease is making awful havoc among southern troops at and around Manassas, we are all remarkably free from it.

Many of the boys have been indulging in old Rye rather freely, for a day or two past, and when found, have recovered from its effects in the guard house. Whiskey, Poker, and the Suttler, are making way with the boys money fast.

Over $40,000. were paid out. Of this, company C, (Sheboygan Co.) received $3,100. The boys sent $1,200 home to Wisconsin.

R. Cheeney, who has been with us as our State Agent, seeing after our best interests,—and his own—has been appointed Paymaster.

There is an absolute dearth of news in camp, as this letter shows. - I pray a removal soon, and the whole regiment responds a hearty Amen CAMP.

P. S. Some trouble arises in camp from a misunderstanding or ignorance on the part of postmasters at home. We do not avail ourselves of the act of Congress, by which letters are sent free, but must be paid on delivery—for Chaplain Barry, as been appointed confidential Sec. to J. F. Potter, with power to use his frank. Letters thus franked must go free, and charging postage on them shows an inexcusable ignorance in the Postmaster which should lose him his head, — officially.

These receiving letters from this Regiment should see to it that they are not imposed upon thus.



Letter of George W. Durgin to Phebe

Camp Durgin
Sept. 22, 1861

My dear Phebe,

Sunday has again arrived and so has the day, or a portion rather, of it been devoted to you. I have now seated myself, almost unconsciously, to discourse with the one of all, dearest till my pen becomes weary, or my time ceases to be mine. Something, perhaps an unusual excess of affection, or an excited imagination (it is possible the weather can account for it) the something, as I said, which brings to my Fancy scenes in which we could converse without any narrow medium, is this afternoon beyond my control. I cannot help picturing the way you and I ought to spend this afternoon, or would, were we together.

Well, we should occupy Lizzie's sitting-room, and her sofa, or tete-a-tete just as it may be called, and by ourselves the hours would indeed fly quickly. I am afraid I should hold your hand very tightly and scan your face closely. The eyes that I see nightly in my dreams, that I seem to see hourly following me imploringly, lovingly, and bravely, would never rest where my own eyes could not see their varying expressions. And the lips that have spoken to me so heroically, have counselled me so wisely, have entreated me so warmly and have acted so womanly I surely should not forget. Soon would your bright smile and cheerful glances dispel the recollection of long months of loneliness, and of sacrifices made that caused us both sorrow. And if I should often hold you closely to my heart you would not chide. The “returned soldier” enjoys great privileges and (to be more reasonable) the confidence you place in your betrothed lover permits him to as well.

When, dear Phebe, your arms were around my neck as we were about to part at either time last summer, I thought to myself that I would indeed be without honor or true heart to do aught undeserving of such pure love. And if we were together this afternoon, though the test has thus far been but a poor one, you would not have any less confidence, nor hesitate in a welcome as affectionate as your “goodbye” of last July. You would find little change in your friend in watching him as we sat together, perhaps slightly altered in complexion, still not materially heavier and tougher, possibly more talkative or more life, and more consideration in his character.

I am depriving myself of much of that pleasure that we should expect to experience in really meeting one another, by anticipating many events or incidents that would cause most happiness. You have frequently asked how long I thought the war would last. Of course, I can only conjecture, and can do that but poorly. We soldiers talk as if it were a settled matter that those who are spared are certain to return home by May or July next, and many, it is thought, will be sooner discharged.

I have great faith in the announced determination of ending the war next march. I know that by October 1st such a body of Union soldiers will be in Missouri, Kentucky, Virginia and elsewhere, and so large an amount of supplies and munitions of war will be on hand that the Rebels can be relentlessly dealt with at every point on the coast and in the interior.

Since last Sunday overt 20,000 soldiers have passed here for Washington, and among them Michigan 1st and 5th Volunteers and 1st Independent. In a day or two we expect the 2nd Michigan and a Cavalry regiment from the same state. Three regiments have passed today, the New York 50th and Penn. 49th and 35th.

It is very cold now and is, I should think, too much so for those living in tents to be comfortable. In our house however, there is no complaint. By the way, let me give you the “bill of fare” under the new regime. Breakfast - Milk-toast, Sweet potatoes and coffee. Dinner Hominy and milk and bread and butter. Tea - unannounced. At present Reilly Dwinnell is our cook and an excellent one, too.

You are anxious to know what you can do for me and really I do not know how to find any work for you, unless it is to have you occasionally write twice 4 week, We are so far separated I cannot have any assistance in many little things in which I know you would like to help. Should anything transpire wherein I could ask your help, I should not hesitate to express myself.

I had a letter from Joel last week. There was no news other than that Miss Humphrey from Monroe was visiting in Montpelier. Perhaps Joel has been very indiscreet, or unnecessarily communicative, though it is possible that Miss H. is talkative. At any rate, Joel writes that he has “heard” all about Phebe. That she is a splendid good girl and a good cook”. Joel is evidently proud of you, from the tone in which he writes, so I cannot find it in my heart to reprove him in case he has been a little careless.

My love to your mother and Lizzie, and God's blessing be up my darling


George Walter Durgin's Civil War Letters, 1861-1864

Letter of Daniel Maxson to his Cousin

Relay House near Baltimore, Maryland September 23d 1861

My Dear Cousin Hattie,

You may be assured that I was greatly pleased at the reception of your good letter the other day. True, I have but little leisure, but I will take a few moments to talk with you.

You spoke of my bereavements. Oh my cousin! Sod has taken away my darlings. I tread alone the weary walks of life. My noble, talented affectionate wife and my beautiful baby are sleeping under the violets and they will come to me no more. Oh, it is so lonely, lonely without them. Harriet, you have seen trials. You have been afflicted with disease. Your aspirations have had their wings clipped. You know what trial is. But may God in his infinite mercy save you from standing by the grave which has closed over your household jewels—your earthly darlings. Such is my prayer.

Through the blessing of God, I have in some degree bowed to the terrible blow and I can say, “thy will be done” though my heart is crying for my loved ones. The exciting scenes of war furnish occupation for my thoughts so that my loss does not weigh as heavily on me as when at home.

I am now with my regiment again at the Relay House. Darwin has doubtless told you of my whereabouts. I had much rather be here handling a musket than driving the goose quill at Fort McHenry.

My health will not endure confinement. If ever I regain it at all, it must be now. General Dix gave me leave of absence for a week and I went down to Washington and staid several days and saw the “pomp and circumstance of glorious war.” The basement of the Capitol is used for an everlasting bakery. More than 200,000 loaves of bread are baked daily for the great army in and around Washington. The splendid Patent Office Building is used for a hospital for the sick and wounded. The fine grounds around the Washington Monument are used as a yard for thousands of cattle which today and tomorrow are not forever. In short, Washington presents the appearance of a beleaguered city.

I went (by the kindness of Lieutenant King of Wis.) over the chain bridge into Virginia and staid with the Wisconsin 5th and 2nd all night. I slept on the further side of the furthest advanced regiment of our forces. I never saw a more splendid night than the one I spent in Virginia. The moon hung glistening in a cloudless sky and her beams fell on countless white tents, stretching away as far as the eye could reach, on gleaming bayonets, on huge cannon, on impregnable fortifications which bind the highlands west of the Potomac together as with a mighty chain. The rebels can never break through them to storm our Capitol. Neither can we go “forward to Richmond” through the terrible batteries of the enemy till we have drawn off a part of their great forces by demonstrations on the coast. Such I think is the plan of the government. We have a hard road to travel to conquer this rebellion. I believe I shall live to see it die and with it, the damnable institution which is the cause of it. But I do seriously fear that the present administration will fail to meet God’s purposes and that He will be obliged to depose them and raise up others who dare do His will.

Fremont alone has met the question and handled it as God would have it handled and government will probably remove him for it. Seward is a mighty humbug and Lincoln is his willing tool. Neither of them meet the crisis like men, nor Christians, but like politicians who dare not say their souls are their own.

I am tired, cousin, and must stop, Please write me again. Direct to Baltimore, Maryland.

Care of Captain Roundy, Co. F, 4th Regt. Wis. Vols.

My love to Ira and the child. — Daniel

Sheboygan Journal, September 25, 1861


Correspondence of the Journal.

MARYLAND, Sept. 16, 1861.

FRIEND MILLS: - Company “C” has been detailed to guard the U. S. Military route from the Relay House to Annapolis Junction. The Co. is scattered along the line in squads of 8 and 10, under charge of a Corporal. Your correspondent is posted with Capt. GRAY and Lieut. COLE at Annapolis Junction, which is a small village at the Junction of the Washington and Annapolis Railroads, and is 21 miles from Washington, 18 miles from Baltimore, and 18 miles from Annapolis. Two companies are of the Massachusetts 21st are stationed near us, guarding the road beyond the Junction towards Washington. We came here day before yesterday, and so far have found it a most delightful location. Several large slave-owners live near us, and appear to be very hospitable people. they cannot hardly be called secessionists, neither can they be called strict Unionists. They seem to have but little sympathy with the war, and in fact do not appear to concern themselves about which side comes out ahead. They attend to their own business, and treat everybody, no matter what their opinions are, hospitably. The planters' daughters are quite patriotic, if the many favors they send us is any criterion. Our duty is light and agreeable. We do pretty much as we please here, with the exception of standing guard nights, and it seems quite a relief to be free from the restrictions of camp life with the regiment.

From this point we hear the frequent booming of cannon at Washington, but we are ignorant of what it is for. As a battle is momentarily expected, on the occasion of firing, we remark, “The great battle has commenced.” But the news comes in a few minutes “all right at Washington.”

Before you receive this, you will have heard of the wholesale arrest of prominent Rebels in Baltimore, including Mayor Brown and Ross Winans. That is a “big thing” and Gen. Dix will immortalize himself by the operation. Some of these men were members of the Legislature which meets at Frederick on Tuesday, and were the most influential and wealthy of the Rebel leaders in Maryland. It is my opinion, and also that of others, that if these men had been permitted to meet together on Tuesday next, they would have passed an Ordinance of Secession, and simultaneously with the Rebel attack on Washington the Rebels of Maryland would have risen and endeavored to place the State Government in the hands of the Southern Confederacy. But the sagacity and promptness of Gen. Dix has placed an awful big block before the wheel of the Rebel cart. It does seem to me incomprehensible why the people of this State should persist in their desire to have a Southern army in their State. I should think that the present plight that Virginia is in would present a horrible warning to them. Why that a State blessed with peace and prosperity should invite armed hosts to convert it into a battle field, is more than I can conjecture.

We have discouraging news from home in regard to the raising of new companies for the war. I trust, in God's name, that you will not have to resort to drafting to obtain your quota of men from Sheboygan county. I presume you recollect the assurances, given us before we left home, that we would be followed, if necessary, at a moment's notice, by any quantity of patriots from home. Do not, I say, let those assurances be proven vain and empty boasting. Recollect that this is the best and noblest cause that God every smiled upon, and that we are bound to win. If Co. “C” is to be the only representative of good old Sheboygan in this war, so be it. As the mate of a vessel said to the captain, during a storm, “you 'tend to your end of the schooner, we'll 'tend to our'n.” We also hear that there is a class of men in your county who are doing mischief by ridiculing the Administration, and denouncing the stringent but urgent laws passed by the last Congress, and making light of the present difficulties which surround our country. This same class of men, while thus poisoning the patriotic atmosphere in which they move, claim to be law-abiding, and therefore, good citizens; and to many are seemingly harmless. They clamor for a peace which would entail upon us unending wars, and ask for an accomodation with their friends, which would forever disgrace and ruin us as a great nation. The Tories of '76 have had their reward; but the Tories of '61 profit by the lesson.

Speaking of tories and this rebellion reminds me of some lines I saw the other day, written in 1850 by on who is now among the most active and unscrupulous in aiding the wide-spread rebellion. I need not tell you they are from the pen of Albert G. Pike. I quote two verses:

“Great God! what a title, what name
Will history give to your crime!
In the deepest abyss of dishonor and shame
Ye will writhe till the last hour of time,
As braggarts who forged their own chains,
Pulled down what their forefathers built,
And tainted the blood in their children's young veins
With the poison of slavery and guilt.
And Freedom's bright heart be hereafter tenfold
For your folly and fall more discouraged and cold,”

“What flat floats over the fires
And the smoke of your parricide war.
Instead of the star and broad stripes of your sires?
A lone pale dim mist-covered star,
With the treason cloud hiding its glow,
And its waning crest close to the sea!
Will the Eagle's wing shelter and shield you? ah, no!
That wing shelters only the free!
Miscall it, disguise it, boast, brag as ye will
We are traitors, misled by your mad leaders still.”

Who would think that this same Albert G. Pike is now congregating a reg't of savages to assist in the slaughter of his countrymen and overthrow of the Union? Indeed, sad times have come upon us.

Soldiers still continue to flock in to Washington. Four regiments passed here yesterday, together with any amount of cannon mounted on carriages.

The 4th regiment has moved from its position one mile south of the Relay House, on to a high hill, overlooking the viaduct and Harper's Ferry road. Entrenchments are to be thrown up, and the position strongly fortified. A battery of artillery is also to be placed there, and I understand it is to be commanded by Lt. Pauli, of Co. “C” who is an experienced artillerist. All this indicates a long sojourn for us in this vicinity. I hope we may never be placed in a worse place.

I will take a trip down to Annapolis to-morrow just for the novelty of the thing, and if I should observe anything of interest while there you shall be duly posted. Again having the pleasure to announce to you that the health of our boys is good, I remain,

Yours, &c., HIGH PRIVATE.


Hudson North Star, September 25, 1861

From the Camp.

[The following interesting extracts, we we are allowed to take from a private letter from ERASTUS HOLMES to his brother E. D, HOLMES, of this city.]


* * * * * *

We are one half mile from the Junction of the Baltimore, Washington and Ohio Railroads. The Relay House is at the Junction—where the cars stop, and we keep a guard posted there night and day. The Stone Bridge has to be guarded in the same way. It is a Rail Road Bridge, with ten abutments, and they are about eighty feet high. It cost about three hundred thousand dollars; it is all cut stone, with an iron railing on both sides. The Turnpike Bridge is about half a mile down the stream, on the turnpike from Baltimore to Washington, which has to be guarded. These bridges are on the Patapsco River, which empties into the bay at Baltimore, and in high water it sets back to the dam, just below the Stone Bridge.

The country is very rough, and appears to be filled with iron ore; there are a number of ore beds about this vicinity, and a number of iron works along the Patapsco. but not any of them are doing any thing. There are six cotton factories at Ellicott's Mills, but only three of them are running, and those only part of the time. There are two grist mills there that, seem to be doing a good business; they are both large stone mills; one was built in the time of the Revolution. * * * * * *

I see by your letter, that you have pretty hard times up at Hudson, but I guess if the poor class of folks here, had as good times as you have there, they would think they were doing well. Respectable women come into camp every morning after the washing, and they say that they don’t know what they should do if it were not for the soldiers. We trade with them bread, and other rations for vegetables—so we live first rate.


Letter of George W. Durgin to Phebe

Camp Durgin, Station No. 4
October 2, 1861

My dear Phebe,

I have just finished reading an excellent letter from a kind friend of yours and mine, Rev. Mr. Camp. I have often expected to hear from him, though I have never written, therefore, was not surprised at the reception of a letter this morning. Mr. Camp writes very kindly and considerately, gives the news in his excellent way, and counsels as he only can. He speaks of my being at “Camp Durgin” - I wonder how it is that he knows of my position. Have you any idea of how much or how little Mr. & Mrs. Camp know of our affairs? They evidently suspected much before I left, perhaps they know nothing now. I am positive that both had, and have, our welfare at heart, and, too, that both think very highly of my Phebe. I was so sure of this, I was several times tempted to talk with Mr. Camp, regarding you, yet I believe your name has never been mentioned between him and myself. Was I right in not yielding to such a sensible temptation?

Mr. Camp thinks that the war will be a long one - and advises us not to desire a removal from our present comparatively safe position, for it seems most probable that all our military skill will be called into use, as soon as we can possibly be fit for duty.

Every few days I visit Camp Bean, as much for the purpose of learning the news as anything else. This morning I gathered a few items of interest. Two more Brigadier Generals and one Major General are yet to be appointed from Wisconsin. As Col. Paine is now the ranking Colonel, it is probable that he will be appointed one of them (the former). I know the appointment is expected and his friends are endeavoring to secure it. If such should be the case, Lt. Col. Bean, whom we greatly love and respect, will be made Colonel and Adjutant Aldrich would be made Lt. Col. The regiment would be safe in the hands of either of these officers. Both are of excellent character and both, too, are very young. It is thought that the Major (F.A. Boardman ) will resign, so our Captains are canvassing the chances of their being elected to succeed him. Capt. Gray would like the position but I think cannot be elected, though the field officers prefer him. Perhaps none of them will have the wished-for appointment. There are a great many contingencies connected with the matter. From first to last Captain Gray would make the best field officer that could be selected from the Captains. He has a better appreciation of military affairs than any of the others seem to have.

Grounds have been selected for an earthwork of considerable magnitude to be called Fort Dix and in a few days I suppose the regiment will doff musket and cartridge box for shovel and wheelbarrow. I believe I do not have to do more than act as a kind of overseer. The work, when finished, is have the name Fort Dix.

There is considerable talk of our going Southward, during the present month. General Dix wishes to go on the coast and when he goes, we go with him. I believe we will be attached to General Duryea's Brigade. My own impression 1s that we may go during the winter. I hardly think any sooner.

My landlady, Miss Dorsey, called on me yesterday, Although she is said to be a secessionist, she talked very pleasantly and kindly. She inquired if I had any sick men in the house and told me (as I had two) to send over to her house if there was anything there which would do them good. She inquired regarding my previous business and said I had made quite a sacrifice (Pshaw, she didn't suspect half of the truth). Today, she sent over some nice pieces of chicken and butter, besides a lot of beautiful baked apples for my sick men. I should have said she brought them over herself. Whatever her sentiments, she is certainly very kind. I strongly suspect her antipathy for Union soldiers has arisen from the bad behavior of many of the companies stationed on the road. I know that my boys have been very careful, and have never manifested the least symptom of lawlessness.

Yesterday I went into the woods after grapes and chestnuts, and came back plentifully supplied with both. Tomorrow, I am going to Baltimore again. It has however become so common an occurence for me to go there, I derive little pleasure from my visits.

I was weighed today, found myself to be five pounds heavier than when I left Sheboygan, therefore it can't be possible that I am growing thin. My health is excellent on the road, though several are now sick who have not before been troubled.

My love to Lizzie and your brother and to my darling an affectionate “Good-night”.


George Walter Durgin's Civil War Letters, 1861-1864

Evergreen City Times, October 4, 1861

Our Army Correspondence.

Letter from the Fourth Regiment.

Sept. 19th, 1861.

FRIEND ROSS: Since our company became incorporated into the 4th Regiment, its services, its merits, and consequent honors, have all been absorbed, swallowed up, and completely eclipsed by the centralizing power of the regimental name. If we did anything nice, it was the 4th Regiment. If we were exceedingly orderly and well behaved on any occasion, it was all the 4th Regiment. All our aspirations for fame all our chances for distinction, all our panting for military glory, were thus hopelessly brushed. So, following the steps of many illustrious predecessors, we seceded - dissolved all connection with the glorious 4th on the basis of mutual agreement, and Company C is now a power by itself.

Capt. GRAY is Commander-in-Chief of the Department, while Orderly DURBIN, and Sergeants WINTERMEYER, THOMPSON, PULLMAN and BROOKS, and COLE, are Chiefs of Divisions. FRANK LAVINE is Private Secretary; Corporal COLE is Postmaster General; Lieutenants PAULI and COLE, and Corporals SHARPE and KRENDTLER, with the Postmaster General form his Cabinet. Corporal LUCAS is Adjutant, Corporal WITTE is Quartermaster Sergeant, and your not very humble servant is High Private in place of E. E. SHARPE, promoted. Our Head-Quarters are at Annapolis Junction, a point 18 miles from Annapolis, 19 from Baltimore, and 20 from Washington; thus occupying a grand central and commanding position. Capt. GRAY issues his General orders daily with as much grace, dignity and authority as Gen. McClellan. The extent of our jurisdiction i 10 miles in length, and width without limit. It is known as “The Railroad Department.”

The Regiment finding itself so weakened by our withdrawal, immediately evacuated Camp Randall and moved nearer the Relay House, to a hill overlooking the Railroad, and commenced fortifying. The new camp is named Camp Bean, in honor of the Lieut. Colonel.

Troops are passing through here almost without number. From 5 to 7 Regiments go through daily. The inhabitants here wonder greatly “where all the soldiers come from.” They say they did not think there were so many in the whole United States. They think we northerners must think a good deal of Lincoln to leave our homes and families and come away from Maine and Wisconsin to fight for him. Trains pass and repass almost hourly laden with horses, cattle, hogs, tents […] ammunition, wagons, &c. I don't see where they find place to put them all.

It appears that our Wisconsin Postmasters have some funny ideas in their heads about postage and the franking privilege, which cause them to take postage on letters franked by a member of Congress. A novel idea, truly! They assume to themselves more knowledge and authority than Congress, the Post Master General and all the Government officials put together. I would like to know what business they have to require postage at that end of the route? The law requires that all letters transmitted from one part of the United States to another shall be prepaid. It makes no provision for their going through and the pay being collected at the place of destination; and if there should a letter come through unpaid, the man that took the letter is liable to the Government, and not the P. M., at the other end of the route. But letters that are franked by an M. C. the Post Master has no business to meddle with. If the M. C. has abused the franking privilege he is liable to punishment, and not the P. M. Their excuse is that it is an abuse of the franking privilege; that members of Congress can frank their own letters but not those of the whole army. How does the P. M. know who sent them? He has no means of knowing except by the frank, which he is bound to respect. The facts are, that the soldiers, having been in the service some time and receiving no pay from Government, got pretty short of funds. The members of Congress knowing the yearnings of the human heart, and considering that a few dollars could be made much more useful in carrying messages of love to the dear ones at home and pouring the oil of consolation into their bleeding hearts, than in lining the pockets of leeches, bloodsuckers, contractors, office seekers, and the whole horde of hangers on at the Capital, - and having the consent of the administration, assumed the responsibility of sending the letters as their own. They were received by the government officials here, and nothing wrong was seen in the transaction till they reached Wisconsin, whom those wisacres decreed that the frank mark was a nullity and the postage must be paid! After the Government had devised a plan to relieve the families of poor soldiers and furnish them the means of communication, because itself was delinquent in its payment, and considered it an act of justice, upon reaching home, the wives and friends must pay the postage out of the scanty pittance left them for their support. Is it not only illegal but it is low - mean - it is contemptible! Nevertheless it was not a little amusing to witness the storm of harmless indignation burst forth against the malicious swindle.

Last night considerable interest was excited in camp by the appearance of 30 men from the Wisconsin 3rd in charge of 10 Secession members of the Maryland Legislature, who were arrested yesterday at Frederick. They were on their way to Washington. They looked rather seedy, nothing having been furnished by the Government, and no pay yet. They felt first rate, however, and were quite proud of their charge. The Seceshers were quite restless under their escort, that not being the business they met to transact.

We have received a complete outfit from the Government. It is quite a fancy dress and gives us a very soldierly appearance. We have got clothes though now to kill a man to carry them. We have two suits from the State, and this one, with three blankets and an overcoat. I tell you what, the Wisconsin 4th are well provided with all the necessaries, many of the comforts and several of the luxuries of life. All the trouble with us, is, we hate to stay here idle and see the smoke of the battle ascend from the field of strife, and hear the roar of artillery reverberating among the surrounding hills, and we not have a chance in. We came to fight and we don't want to get cheated out of it. But if appearances are not deceiving we stand a good chance of having that wish gratified to our hearts content before too many weeks. Coming events cast their shadows before, and Potomac's dread echoes shall ring with the bloodhounds that howl the requiem over the death of Secession.

Yours, &c.,



The Burlington Free Press, October 7, 1861

Our obituary column, several days since, contained a notice of the death of JULIUS H. HUBBARD. He was, as some of our readers are aware, the son of our townsman, Mr. W. H. Hubbard, and appears to have been one of those faithful, patriotic, and reliable soldiers, of whom the northern army is so largely composed, and on whom the success of this contest mainly depends. He enlisted very early in the war, in the 4th Wisconsin) Regiment, and died at the Relay House, in Maryland, of typhoid fever, on the 23d ult.

The captain of his company, in a letter to his father, says: “He was one of my best men, always ready to do his duty, which, with his good habits, won for him the good will and praise of all who knew him, both in his company and in the regiment. * *

He was buried in the Methodist burial-ground in a small village called Elkridge Landing. His funeral sermon was preached by our chaplain; a salute of 24 guns was fired over his grave, and all the honors rendered that are due a worthy soldier.”

Mr. Hubbard gave his life for his country as truly as if he had fallen in battle, and, as did his comrades in arms, let all who respect the cheerful and faithful performance of duty render, to his memory “the honors due a worthy, soldier.”


Oconto Pioneer, October 10, 1861

Our Army Correspondence. —

Camp Bean, Md., Sept. 25, 1861.

FRIEND GINTY:—The whole human race are liable to disappointments, and on reviewing the past, I find that the “Wis. 4th” is included, for it is useless to add that ere now we expected to meet the enemy on the battle field. In this, we are sorely disappointed as yet, though there is plenty of time for fighting. I will explain briefly: On the day preceding the appointed one for our departure from here, Major General Dix was suddenly overwhelmed with a succession of petitions humbly asking that the gallant Fourth might remain at the “Relay House” for a little while longer, and more, if possible. These articles, breathing forth all the marks of respect and affection for us, were immediately forwarded to General MCCLELLAN for consideration, who finally consented to let us remain until further orders. Therefore, our orders are countermanded, and we are still at the Relay, as of old. We were held in suspense for a number of days, and knew not whore we would go, being ready at all times, and still clinging to our usual duties; finally it was concluded and the suspense removed temporarily. The “Drivers” at the same time asking to move into camp once more, that they might improve in “battalion manoeuvres.” The request was granted, and we are snugly encamped on a new ground, which we have christened “Camp Bean,” in honor of our Lieut. Colonel, S. A. BEAN, who is much beloved by us all. Our Colonel, who is very unassuming in such matters, suggested the above name. Fortune has smiled on the “Drivers” and all others in this Regiment, being blessed with the best field officers that could be wished for. All seem to regard every man in the ranks with the utmost interest, and nothing is left undone by them that tends to our health, discipline, and convenience. In this respect we are better off than other Regiments from our State. With such officers, it is perfectly easy to enforce obedience to any order or request made by them. Every soldier is treated in that true Christian spirit, which brings tears to the eyes of the disobedient and forgetful. To such, I need hardly add, the verbal censure of our beloved Colonel is punishment enough— they go to their duty rebuked, but with an enthusiastic respect for the officer, who feels as deep pain in administering rebuke as the soldier does in his humility. We moved from the old Camp Randall in order to get a purer spot of ground than that we have occupied. We are now situated on a high bill, overlooking the B. & O R. R., our lines running close to it. Notwithstanding the usual calm after a storm, there is sufficient life about the camp at present. Since I wrote you, the boys have been all paid off in gold, (none of Oconto 90 day drafts.) All hands have plenty of money, and lots to spare. Some spend it, others send it home—each acting to his own taste. We were also favored with “Treasury notes” to send home, as being more convenient. At present the excitement is in regard to our new uniform, which we are to receive this week. It is the uniform of the regular service, and is a splendid affair, Our present uniform is good as regards wear, and were it not so near a facsimile for the rebel uniform, no change would have been needed. In order to avoid mistakes, and even serious disaster, a change was necessary. We are to have the old uniform kept for us. Some of the boys say that they have clothes enough to last them three years. Goo, Lanning says he can sell clothes enough to nett him as much wages as be ever realized on the Oconto. This is “George” as natural as ever. We noticed in your last issue that apples are selling in Oconto at three for a cent, and good ones at that. This either speaks well for the crop, or ill for the pocket; the boys are very anxious to know which. One exciting feature of camp life, in this section, are the daily news-boys, who come in every afternoon at 4 o’clock to sell their issues. As is usual with them, they greatly exaggerate reports. One little fellow has deceived the soldiers so many times, by announcing “startling news,” that he is, to us a Maryland expression, about “played out.” It has got to be an old story to bear, “Baltimore Clipper! another battle!” sounded through the camp, and no one gets excited about it. The boys, however, are “right smart,” (another Southern phrase,) and sell all the papers they bring. Nothing but a discussion of victories reach us now. The gallant conduct of the Irish Regiment, at the battle of Lexington, Mo., is the remark and admiration of all. But, as THOS. MEAGHER remarks, “the Irishman who would not fight in this cause, justly deserves the curses of his native Isle.” We have many men of Irish birth amongst us, and they are among the best in the field, in every Regiment that I have seen. We were honored with a visit from a detachment of boys from the 3d Wis. Regiment, the other night, who were direct from Frederick, where they are now encamped, having in custody the remainder of that nest of traitors designated as the “Maryland Legislature.” They proceeded to Baltimore to deliver their prisoners. The Wisconsin 3d has not been paid off yet, and they look as if they were not so well cared for as we are. It is singular how much, soldiers, even entire strangers, think of each other. Any, Regiment you meet treats “soldiers” as brothers. Geo. Combs and myself were at Baltimore the other day, and visited several regiments—among them were the 7th Maine, 3d. New. York, and Duryea's Zouaves, all of whom seemed glad to see us. In fact, it is a much easier matter to visit a Regiment than to leave one. In every Regiment there were soldiers with whom we were well acquainted, which rendered it still more pleasant. They are fortifying several prominent points in Baltimore very strongly, but it would take some time to explain how.-—We expect the 7th Wis. to-morrow, and will try to turn out and receive them en masse, Gov. RANDALL was here on Friday last, but didn't stay long enough to see us all. Capt. LOY has been to Pennsylvania a few days on furlough.— He returned on Friday, and we gave him a hearty reception. -It really seemed like meeting a parent, to witness the congratulations he received from the “Drivers” He is with us once again as our gallant leader. We expect to be reviewed by Major General Dix this week. Does any of the boys want to come along with us? We have at last perfected an arrangement whereby any who wish to join can get their passage through to us, Not more than five or six could be accepted at present. I think of nothing more to write. Yours truly,
Orderly Sergeant of Company H.


The Manitowoc Herald, October 10, 1861


The Chilton Times has the following: James Hart, of Stockbridge, a member of Company K., Fourth Regiment, Wis Vol. died in hospital at the Relay House. Md, on Sunday the 22d ult. His disease was typhoid fever. The deceased was much beloved by his comrades, and they, as well as a large circle of relatives and friends in this county, deeply regret his loss Jackson Chicks, of the same company, lies in a very precarious condition from the same disease his recovery is very doubtful.”

Lieut. Reighley, of the same Company, hag returned on account of sickness. The Times says, “he was honorably discharged on account of ill health. He was well liked and respected by the Co, and his parting with boys was a very painful one. Since he left Maryland he has been rusticating among his old friends in Ohio, and the boys will be pleased to learn that his health-has improved considerably since he left.


Sheboygan Journal, October 11, 1861

From the Fourth Regiment.

Correspondence of the Journal.

MARYLAND, Oct. 1, 1861.

FRIEND MILLS: Company “C” is still engaged in the arduous duty of guarding the railroad from the Relay to Annapolis Junction, and is likely to be for some time to come. As I write, Adj. Aldrich and Capt. Gray are just starting for Washington on an extra engine. Something is evidently in the wind, but I am unable to conceive what it is. News of a startling character has just been received from the army across the Potomac, and their business there is undoubtedly important. If the two opposing armies meet in a general engagement across the Potomac, our Regiment would undoubtedly be pushed forward immediately, and in case our army should receive a check, we would, Blacher-like, rush up, fresh and eager, and decide the day. Don't you see?

Through the kindness of Capt. Hammond, of the A. & E. R. R., I visited the ancient town of Annapolis, on Saturday last. Annapolis is distinguished more for its being the Capitol of the State, and the U. S. Naval Academy located there, than for anything else. The city proper is a miserable, uninviting place, with no pretentions of anything to brag of, excepting the amount of niggers it contains. A white man in that vicinity is quite a novelty. The buildings and property, lately occupied by the Government, are now used by the Mass. 21st regiment for their quarters. The buildings enclosed within the walls are built of beautiful blue stone and brick, and magnificent ones they are too. There are upwards of 40 buildings within the square, all of the most costly structure, filled with all the modern improvements such as gas, water works, steam heating apparatus, &c., at an expense to Government of millions of dollars, all of which are now deserted, with the exception of a few occupied by the Mass. reg't. A shady park is within the walls, adorned with statuary and fountains, which give it a most beautiful and effective appearance. The U. S. war steamer Alleghany lies at anchor about a quarter of a mile from the Academy. She now has a large number of Rebel prisoners on board, who are in charge of Col. Morse, of the 21st. Maj. Clark informs me that many of them are being released daily by merely going through the form of subscribing to the oath of allegiance. Half of them who sign the oath will not have been at liberty ten days before they will be just as actively engaged in their hellish work. I think the Government is entirely too lenient in this business. I saw a little acdote in a paper a day or two ago, which was a good illustration of the way Gov't is acting with these secessionists. Some boys had caught a live rattle-snake while out blackberrying, and the question arose, what should be done with him. One of them spoke up, saying, “Let us make him swear to the oath of allegiance to the Government and let him slide” That boy had undoubtedly been reading the papers for the past few months.

The old capital building situated in the heart of the place is a noble looking structure. In it is the room in which Washington delivered up his commission as commander-in-chief of the American army. In the rotunda lies an iron cannon which Lord Baltimore bro't over with him to this country in the year 1634. It has been placed for many years in the Capital for safe keeping, and as a relic of the olden times. The outside of it has been eaten considerably by rust, and is quite decayed; so much so that small scales of it can easily be knocked off. I kicked off a piece of it, which I enclose to you, thinking you would prize it as a relic of the early days of America. The cannon is about twelve feet long, and would carry a 16 lb. ball.

There is nothing of interest along the route from the Junction to Annapolis. The road passes through the “Piney Woods,” and occasionally a tobacco or corn field breaks the sameness of the scenery along the route. The N. Y. 7th and Mass. 8th passed over the road on their march to Washington in May last, and experienced considerable difficulty in re-laying imaginary rails and rebuilding imaginary locomotives, displaced and destroyed by imaginary secessionists. Your readers, many of them, have probably seen the history of “the perilous” march of the above regiments, which was published in the June and July numbers of the Atlantic Monthly. I am informed upon undoubted authority, by men who were in the employ of the road, and good Union men too, that the members of both of these regiments did more hard work writing “puffs” of themselves for the newspapers and magazines than in any other way, and they were all falsehoods from beginning to end.

Since my last over 25,000 troops have passed here on their way to Washington, and also enormous quantities of horses, cattle, &c. As the Potomac is now blockaded, so to speak, this is the only route now open from the North to and from Washington.

The regiment received their new uniforms last week, and expect to receive new arms in a short time. The uniform is handsome and durable; the coat is a dark blue frock coat, long skirts, brass buttons, &c; the pants of the same quality of goods and same color. The men now all look like officers. We received about $50 worth apiece, consisting of one over-coat, one dress coat, one pair pants, one cap, two undershirts, two pair stockings, and one pair of shoes - all of which are of the very best material. Uncle Sam does not furnish anything else but the best.

On Friday last the regiment passed in review before Generals Dix and Duryea, who presented the regiment with a stand of colors. Both Generals were highly pleased with the appearance of Co. Paine's command, both in its drill and general phisique. After the presentation of the colors, Gen'ls Duryea, Dix the Officers of the regiment, and a few others, repaired to the Relay House and had a regular “out west” jollification.

Two deaths have occurred within the last two weeks in the hospital. One of the victims was James Hart, of the Calumet Co.; the name of the other I have not learned. A number of Co. “C's” boys are in the hospital, but are not dangerous.

Yours, &c., HIGH PRIVATE.


Letter of George Durgin to Phebe

Station No. 4, W. Br. B & O R.R. YD.
October 13, 1861

Dear Phebe,

I presume you are, at this moment, absorbed in duties connected with your Sabbath School Class, therefore you hardly think of any occupation that I may be engaged in. It would be a great pleasure to me to resume for this morning only my old position amongst the scores of bright and smiling faces around you, to watch the expressions of welcome and recollection that I am sure would beam on many of them and to win a glance from one face that would Speak volumes to me alone. Of course, I hope I am missed by some of you now assembled in the church so familiar to you and I. Mr. Paine's absence must occasion constant regret since he is so associated with the school in its prosperous days. By the way, will you give me his whole address? I have written him but expect that my letter has been wrongly directed. Is he a Lieut. or is he connected with any corps in particular of our army?

It is quite cold this morning, so chilly indeed that a fire is a great comfort in our house. I don't believe I could manage to write intelligibly if I were now in my tent. The tents are so cosy, though, it may be much more comfortable within them than I think it is. However, if the regiment remains here many more weeks, the erection of barracks will become an absolute necessity. I believe Captain Gray intends asking Colonel Paine to relieve us on Saturday of this week. We have been on the road already over four weeks and that is much longer than any other company has been permitted to remain. I am not yet tired of my residence and would prefer not to leave it.

I am pleased to hear that you had so pleasant a trip with your brother and especially glad that you visited Camp Randall and obtained so good an impression regarding Camp life. Why, of course, tents are not such poor houses as many imagine them to be, there is a great charm in them to those who occupy them. On moonlight nights there is an irresistable beauty connected with them. With the doors thrown wide open, the beautiful pure air pouring in, the leaves rustling in the moonlight and the quiet of an orderly camp, after taps, one cares not to sleep. When it rains it is very pleasant in our tents, the drops patter delightfully on their roofs and if properly ditched outside they are perfectly dry. My experience of tent life is by no means an unpleasant one. One thing, though, temperate and affable companions are indispensible to their enjoyment.

What is thought regarding Mr. Ellis' enlistment? He can never render any service as a private, for he is unable to bear the fatigue necessary to render a soldier efficient. I had thought that he never would be accepted.

I don't now of any news in particular regarding the regiment, there are the usual amount of rumors, about our remaining and leaving, and as conflicting as ever are such rumors. Some are certain that we are to remain at this post all Winter, others assert that we leave within ten days. Governor Randall's Private Secretary Watson says we are soon to start for Kentucky and I understand, from equally good authority, that Col. Paine is to have charge of a brigade which is going on a Coast Expedition. I can't undertake to tell you which of these reports you can most rely on but I am certain you need not hesitate in directing your next letter to St. Denis P. O.

There is considerable excitement in the regiment regarding the possibility of promotion. In case of Col. Paine's appointment as Brigadier General, it is calculated that two Captains and four Lieutenants places will have to be filled. Therefore, everybody seems to be be calculating the chances of his appointment. I believe Capt. Gray is confident of being Major. I am quite sure that he cannot possibly be elected. In case he should be (and that I won't believe) Lt. Pauli will be made Captain and somebody 1st Lieut. over Lt. Cole's head. Ed Shape has “great expectations” for the position as Capt. Gray seems to desire that he should have it. Sergt. Wintermeyer is very anxious, and your friend George, who is next to the Lieuts. in line of promotion, has some interest in the matter, but, at present, has no faith in an election ever taking place in Co. C. To say the truth I presume that I should desire a Lieutenants position in case a vacancy ever occurred among our commissioned officers. I don t know whether I could be elected to such a place or not, it is difficult to discern the wishes of a hundred men until they clearly express it. I know that at present Capt. Gray's influence would be exerted against me, probably it will at any time. I was amused at something Sharpe said a day or two since - when he was canvassing the chances of his election (I use his own words) “Durgin makes an excellent Orderly, the best we could Possibly get in the company, so he ought to be kept where he is, especially as there are others among the privates who would make a much better Lieutenant.” I had thought that an officer who did his duty well deserved all proper reward and should I even seek an election to any position in the company, it would be solely that I might, if possible, be assured in a real way that I had so done my duty as to win the support of almost the entire company. Some of my best friends are considerably exercised regarding the matter and are anxious that I should obtain a commission, but, positively, I shall be quite satisfied where I am, unless an attempt is made to promote an incompetent and undeserving man over then my pride will rebel. I had intended to say not a word to anybody regarding this, but somehow I can't help telling you.

Lt. Pauli informed me this morning that the position of Quartermaster Sergeant in our regiment had been offered to me through the Captain. I shall accept no position out of the Company and especially not inclined to take that.

Fort Dix is already in process of erection. It is to be an irregular fort capable of holding two or three hundred men but to be occupied, I believe, by one company. Its armament will consist of six 24 pdrs.

I am obliged to draw this uninteresting letter to a close. I desire to be kindly remembered to Lizzie and Frank and to all at your home.

Much love to yourself. Affectionately


George Walter Durgin's Civil War Letters, 1861-1864

Oconto Pioneer, October 17, 1861

From the Camp.

CAMP BEAN, Md., Sept. 29.

FRIEND GINTY: Upon one of the highest hills in the State of Maryland, whose top is crowned with one of the most beautiful chestnut groves, and from which an extended view of the surrounding country can be had, is Camp Bean situated. This position was formerly occupied by the noted Massachusetts Sixth, the regiment which received such ill treatment at the hands of the Baltimoreans on the 17th of last April, as your readers will remember.

Our position here is most pleasant and advantageous; and our stay here has not only been much longer, but attended with fewer difficulties than was at first anticipated by either officers or soldiers. The inference is not to be drawn, however, that our duties are by any means very easy.

You are aware of the approaching Gubernatorial contest in the State, which is the leading topic of the day. The Union candidate is BRADFORD, a man enjoying the trust and confidence of all Union-loving citizens. At present, the eyes of the contending parties are anxiously watching the course of events, and the progress of the belligerent forces in the field - each hoping that their side may come out victorious; and whichever way the scales may turn, that will be the triumphant party. There are very many citizens of this State who profess Union sentiments as a matter of policy, and should our side come forth conquerers in any important engagement, the majority in our favor will be overwhelming, and vice versa.

The course pursued by Col. PAINE - a man who commands the love and respect of his men, and wins the regard of all with whom he comes in contact - and the utmost decorum and good behavior of the men, not only on but off duty, has contributed much toward engendering and fostering a good feeling among all classes of society.

An event long expected came off on Friday last, the 27th inst. It was the presentation to the Regiment of a beautiful stand of colors. The following is a full account of the matter, as published in the Baltimore Clipper.

Friday morning, the 27th inst,, Major Gen. Dix and staff, Brig. Gen. Duryea, and Major Belger, came down to the Relay House for the purpose of reviewing the noted Wisconsin 4th Regiment, and presenting to them a new and elegant stand of colors.

About 8 o'clock the regiment was drawn up in line by Adjutant L. D, Aldrich (a very efficient officer,) on the parade ground, and presented a truly martial appearance. The new uniform was worn, and upon its surface down the ranks extended a line of white gloved hands, presenting a striking and beautiful contrast to the dark blue of the coats. The arms notwithstanding the drizzling rain, wore bright and clean, proving that the Wisconsin boys can keep even poor muskets in good condition, and also the truth of the old adage, that “a good soldier is known by the arms he carries,”

When the presentation was about to take place, the division on each flank of the battalion were wheeled to the right and left, forming three sides of a square. This movement was executed with such a degree of perfection as to elicit remarks of praise from Gen. Dix and the officers who accompanied him. The color guard then marched forward from the line, and Gen. Dix placing the colors in the hands of Col. Paine, addressed the regiment in the following patriotic and stirring language:

“Soldiers: Eighty four years ago the stars and stripes were adopted by the old Federal Congress as the national banner. Under its auspices the founders of the Republic passed triumhpantly through the toils and perils of that sanguinary contest, which made us a free and independent people, During more than three quarters of a century has it floated over us as the standard of the Constitution and the Union During that long period of time — the longest through which any people have ever passed without some interval commotion or public disaster—it has never been dishonored at home or abroad. It has never sheltered injustice. No armies have ever been enrolled under it to carry on wars of aggression or conquest. It has been the emblem of peace, of social improvement, of growth by development, and not by forcible accession.

“This flag, soldiers! which the government of your country confides to you, is the same under which your ancestors rallied to cut of the yoke of colonial servitude; the same which your fathers defended against foreign enemies and which you are now called on to uphold against the foulest rebellion that ever dishonored a civilized community. A rebellion without a pretext of oppression or wrong, and inaugurated in fraud and violence and public plunder.

“I commit it to your keeping, with no misgivings as to the fidelity or the courage with which sou will defend it against all its enemies. The noble State from which you come, blessed in its soil, its climate and its people, one of the youngest members of the Union, but one of the foremost in patriotic devotion to it, will follow you with her best wishes and prayers, into the scenes of peril which in all probability will soon open upon you.

“She will expect you to remember that under that flag you are to uphold her honor as well as that of the country, of which she is an integral and inseparable part.— And let me remind you also, that on the broad prairies which have sent you forth to vindicate the authority of the Government and maintain the integrity of the Union, there are 800,000 patriotic hearts which are beating in unison with your own, which will bound if you are faithful, or sink if you fail in the great trust confided to you.

“I know you need no other incentive to stimulate you to the performance of your duly. In the name of the Government I commit this banner to you, with the assurance that it will receive no stain in your bonds. Let every man consider himself as specially charged with its defence. Let every man determine that it shall never be surrendered while a drop of Wisconsin blood courses in his veins. Let this be your firm resolve, and you will not only bring it out of this contest unstained, as I now confide it to you, but as an emblem of victory—honorable alike to your country and yourselves.”

Col. Paine, receiving the colors from the hands of Genenal Dix, said—”General, in the hour of battle I shall lean upon the valor of those men with an unfaltering trust. I believe they will in that hour cheerfully follow this flag through the gates of death, choosing rather to witness the complete extermination of the Fourth Wisconsin Regiment than the dishonor of its flag.'

“Boys, am I right? Do you say aye?” (The regiment responded with a thundering aye!)

'God of Heaven grant that I may never survive—that not one of you may ever survive—the dishonor of this flag,'

Then turning to the regiment—”Soldiers, three cheers for our country's flag!” (The soldiers thereupon gave three hearty cheers) “Three cheers for General Dix!” (The soldiers responded with three hearty cheers and a Wisconsin tiger.

Tho colors were then placed by Col. Paine in the bands of the color bearers who bore them proudly to the regiment and the band played the “Star Spangled Banner.” The regiment then passed in review and as they came near the officers, Gen. Dix was heard to say, “they do as well as our regulars.” They marched in column firm and steady and it needed but a glance to assure one that the emblem of our country's greatness was safe in their hands. — That the words there spoken would be remembered, and death would reap a willing harvest before a shred from those banners should be torn by traitorous hands. Could Jeff. Davis have witnessed the scene, the conviction would have forced itself upon him that his polluting touch could never tear them into strips to wad a rebel cannon.

At the conclusion of the review the regiment was marched back to Camp Bean (which, by the way is named after Lieut. Col, Bean, whom the boys are said to call ‘our Napoleon,' from his resemblance to Napoleon Bonaparte) and dismissed.— Tho officers then adjourned to the Relay House, where a sumptuous dinner had been provided under the immediate supervision of the able and efficient quartermaster, A. J. McCoy, to whose exertions and capability is due, in a great measure, the fine appearance and condition of the men, for not one regiment in the service is better provided for than the Wisconsin 4th. General Dix, Major Belger, and Brig. Gen. Duryea, were escorted to the cars and took their leave, much to the disappointment of all, for their presence had been calculated upon. It was necessary for them, however, to leave.

Col. Paine presided at the table; behind him, at the upper end of the hall, were the national and regimental colors.

After ample justice was done to the bountiful repast, Capt, J. T. Loy offered the following toast:

To the colors presented to us to-day— In the language of the one who presented them, 'He who attempts to pull them down, shoot him on the spot.'

Eloquently responded to by Col. Paine. In the course of his speech he said of the soldiers of the regiment, that it was the truth, and the noblest truth he could utter concerning them, that they were, with out hardly an exception, gentlemen; and there was nothing so dear to him on earth but he would joyfully sacrifice it to enable them to do what be knew them capable of doing on the field of battle. (Applause.)

The color bearer H. Stemple, who has been a Major in the Prussian arms, here proposed three cheers for Col, Paine which were vociferously given, standing.

Capt. O. H. La Grange “to the absent officers of the 4th Wisconsin Regiment.” May they all be present at that grand feast which we believe awaits us.

Col. Bean (last) amid the roars of laughter, Col. Paine and his officers proposed by Lieut. Dix. Maj. Boardman here took the floor, and with his characteristic promptitude delared his inability to give an appropriate toast, for the occasion, but his ability to enact the duties of a good soldier.

Capt. Joy, gentlmen, to Col. Paine and the field officers we ensure the sentiment, that no man shall live to tell the tale of the dishonor of the Laws and the Constitution.

Adjutant L. D. Aldrich.—'Officers, I am pained, no sham; I am too full for utterance, but as long as I can wield an arm these colors shall never trail in the dust,'

Quartermaster McCoy.—'Colonel Paine —I never mot him until I entered the 4th Wiscossin, but once seen it is enough; in battle I'll fight for him, and by his side, until I die.'

Sergt. Wilson.—'Our worthy Quartermaster—May his shadow never, grow less.'

Captain: D. M. White - I'm just like the Colonel commands us; I'm going just where the colors go:'

Lieut. Paine— To the American Eagle May he never build his nest until he reaches the other side of the Potomac.”

Capt, La Grange, ever mindful of the interest of the boys, proposed ‘three cheers for the men of the 4th Wisconsin who are at work while we are feasting.” Responded to by three rousing cheers.

Quartermaster Sergt. Aza Kinney. The colors this day presented to the 4th Wisconsin Volunteers To him of the 4th who falters in their defence, may the Gods curse him; to him who bravely fights beneath their folds and nobly stands to their defence, may the God of battles protect him.'

The entertainment closed with entire satisfaction and good feeling. Never has the old Relay House, in Maryland, witnessed a gathering of more patriotic souls than were that day assembled between its walls. And its memory will ever remain green in the hearts of those who participated in its festive joys.

The next day, the Regimental band having been urgently invited to be present at a grand Union rally and pole raising at Ellicott's Mills, a place of no inconsiderable note, we went up and partook of the hospitalities of the inhabitants of this beautiful little village. On our arrival at the depot, we were escorted up to the scene of the festivities. Here a splendid pole had been prepared, and everything being in readiness, it was hoisted to its position amid music and the cheers of the large assembly. I must speak of the singing of the Star Spangled Banner, by thirty-four beautiful young ladies, most appropriately dressed for the occasion. It was indeed a sight long to be remembered, in this part of the enemy's dominion, to see the gorgeous emblem of our beloved country thus honored, seemingly more beautiful than ever, as it gracefully floated in the breeze.

But I am altogether too elaborate. I will close with merely remarking that Company H is fast becoming the flower of the Regiment, not only in drill, but in the good behavior of its members, and also that there is not one of the company in the hospital. Let friends in Oconto remember that the most they can do to cheer a soldier's heart is to write often, no matter how short the epistle. Nothing contributes more toward maintaining a cheerful heart than this.

Yours truly, B.


Letter of George Durgin to Phebe

Camp Boardman, Md., Oct. 20. 1861

My dear Phebe,

Have you not wondered at my silence for a week? I had never thought that any thing could happen here to prevent me from writing at least twice each week to you, at any rate, that nothing but a very severe sickness could possibly rob you of my letters. It seems however that I was mistaken, for during the Past week my occupations have been such that I could not as usual write on Wednesday or any day thereafter. Our Company (C) was ordered in last Thursday at the request of Captain Gray, as many of the members were becoming sick. On that day and the following, I was without any tent, as those who had charge of it neglected to bring it in and it rained so severely both days I was unable to find any place in or on which I could write. Yesterday I was detailed by Col. Paine to visit Baltimore for the purpose of arresting a deserter there, and that, with other business, occupied me all day in that city.

As I have never before (if I recollect rightly) failed to write twice a week since my agreement to that effect, probably you have been surprised at this delay. I hope you have not suffered from any fears of sickness; I know such circumstances are very likely to give rise to thoughts that one cares not to entertain. I assure you, dear, I am perfectly well, though too I am sometimes surprised at being so for many are sick now, who have never before been affected. There are but fifteen men in the company besides myself who have never had to be excused from duty. As the sickly season is nearly past, and as I feel quite well, I presume I have reason for thinking that I am likely to be spared from bodily prostration during the remainder of the fall and through the winter. I am sure I can stand any cold weather that we may experience here or south of this point. I am very thankful to God for having protected me since my departure from the midst of friends. I have so little acquaintance with the sick-bed that prostrated with fever or any disease I would be helpless and impatient. Can you not thank God darling for me, in your prayers, so signally has He preserved me in the midst of sickness and malaria? There are ten members of Co. C quite low with fever, all of them, however, are in a fair way of recovering. Capt. Gray is also sick, he intends starting for Ohio on Tuesday as he has obtained a three weeks furlough.

I was sorry that it was considered best to leave the railroad but the boys of my mess were particularly grieved as they had formed many excellent friendships among the people residing near. One of the best liked fellows in the company, Oscar Arnold, was married a day or two before we came in, to an excellent young lady whose acquaintance he formed five weeks ago.

Camp Boardman (named after our Major) is the most pleasant position the regiment has yet had. Its streets are wide, easily drained and neatly laid out. The railroad to Washington is at the base of the camp grounds. The officers' tents are situated in a beautiful grove of pine trees, planted regularly. My own tent is at present better arranged than it ever was before, and as only one other besides myself occupies it. I am necessarily less crowded than I used to be. Indeed I have a very pleasant place here, although I disliked coming back. As the regiment is entirely occupied in guard duty and building entrenchments, there are now no battalion drills, therefore, I should have little to do if it were not for having to make out company payrolls and other papers required at the close of October. I expect to have any amount of spare time after the first of next month, but then I'm not sure.

I presum you are at your home in Monroe at Present. As I am not sure about it, however, I shall mail this letter as usual. I have no objection to your giving Lizzie one of my pictures, and you have so many you can easily spare one. If you have not, on receipt of this, left Sheboygan you may give her the large photograph that I last sent you and I will give you another, as I have a very good one left. If though, you are at home, you may (but then you're not going to ask my permission) keep the one you you have and tell me what you think my sending the one I have to your brother. If you think he will be pleased to receive it, I will send another with much pleasure. And another matter, too, it has been in my thoughts to write either Frank or Lizzie after you left Sheboygan. I don't think that they will appreciate my letters as you do, yet I would be gratified to write if they care to hear directly from me. I do not wish to have you ask them, they will probably express themselves if they have any wishes regarding the matter. I think very highly of both of them, not alone for the many excellent qualities they possess, but also on account of their kindness to you. They, too, were always more than kind to myself, therefore is it any wonder that on your account and my account I should respect and love them?

I have to express my thanks through you to your brother for a “Sentinel” which I receive regularly and, too, I must say that in so readily accepting your brother's offer I have no thought that he intended to do otherwise than send me the copy he took in Sheboygan.

I shall write again in a few days.

Give my love to those at your present home and write soon to

Ever your


George Walter Durgin's Civil War Letters, 1861-1864

Letter of George Durgin to Phebe

Camp Boardman, Md., Oct. 24, 1861
Thursday Morning

My dear Phebe,

This day has opened so beautifully, I can write with a degree of comfort that I have not experienced before a week, The Company (C) has been in camp one week this morning, and seven gloomier or colder days have not passed since its organization. It has been rainy, misty, frosty and windy. Last night it was severely cold, though personally, I experienced little inconvenience, I know the boys felt the piercing wind as none have as good arrangements as myself. I have a good floor and a well filled straw bed that add considerable comfort to my tent. I presume we will hereafter experience very cold nights, but we can put up with them when the days are as pleasant as this one is. I don't know what calculations are being made regarding our winter quarters but I can't think that it is going to be necessary for the men of this regiment to live here all winter in canvas houses. Government has furnished good clothes and food to us thus far and gives us good reason for presuming that due care will be taken regarding Jack Frost's assaults. I shall build myself some kind of a shanty for one might about as well live out of doors entirely as in one of these tents. We — that is the privates and non commissioned officers who are supposed to be not posted regarding regimental affairs — understand that the regiment will, without doubt, remain at the Relay House this winter. The assurance will be comforting to its and my many friends of course, but then I am not sure that any composing the regiment are satisfied with this prospect. Now most of the other Wisconsin regiments have had a chance to show their steel, the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th and even the 8th regiments, while we, the “pets” so called, are enjoying a life of ease and comfort entirely out of the reach of danger. I do not doubt in the least that any or all of the Sheboygan Co. companies in the 1st, 8th or 9th regiments will do battle before Co. C of the “Fourth”. While the fact is entirely beyond the control of the latter, and of course not at all to its discredit, it is hurtful to its pride. An order was recently is— sued by Gen. McClellan directing a detail of fifty men from each regiment under his command to be attached to the Cavalry. About 700 men volunteered, therefore, in this regiment alone, most of that number giving as their reason for desiring a transfer, as wish to go across the Potomac or somewhere where they could attain the object for which they enlisted. However the regiment is popular, for several recruits have been attached to it from Maryland and a number are expected from New York sometime next week.

Aside from duties that the orderly has at the last of October in making out clothing receipts, pay rolls, etc., etc., I have little to do at present. Most of the members of the company are engaging in throwing up the entrenchments called Fort Dix. The body so engaged is denominated the “Irish Brigade”. It is amusing to see the men, formerly schoolteachers, clerks or loafers, busily employed with shovels, pickaxes and wheel barrows. None dislike the work, it is not hard, and is appetizing. The guns have arrived, and as the fort is nearly completed, Company C somewhat expects to occupy it, as Lieut. Pauli is the only person in the regiment that is an experienced artillerist. I think I should like the discipline and exercise.

Capt. Gray has not yet gone home though he calculates to start sometime this week. He claims to be sick but I much doubt the necessity of his leaving the company.

For two or three weeks past I have been in better mood regarding company affairs and company officers. I have had much fault to find with Capt. Gray for various and many reasons but when he is pleasant and gentlemanly I do not intend to grumble. While a few things have occurred during the past three weeks which I could not but condemn as a general thing, matters in the company have assumed a far more pleasant shape than they had had before for a long time. There is less acerbity and impatience, more kindliness and good feeling manifested.

I believe that I have not, however, had my disposition greatly soured by certain transactions, though I have often been angry, or lost my confidence, when noticing great manifestations of impartiality or ill temper on the part of our Captain. Personally I have been almost invariably treated well, but having so much to do, in or with disciplining the company, I demur at the punishment of some offenders while those offences of most rank go unpunished

For some time Capt. Gray has been more genial, more just, more soldierlike in every way, and that pleases me. I will render all assistance in my power to a just officer, but I will, when I can, defeat the plans of an obviously partial one.

This letter has been so occupied with regimental or company news, you will find it very uninteresting. I have concluded it best to direct the letter to Monroe, presuming that you are likely to get it sooner it that way than if it were sent to Sheboygan.

Please write soon, telling me how comfortably you made the journey, etc. etc.

Remember me to such friends as you may be with and even think kindly of.



George Walter Durgin's Civil War Letters, 1861-1864

Whitewater Register, October 25, 1861

From the Fourth Regiment.


[By the kindness of the gentleman to whom it is addressed, we are permitted to lay the following letter before our readers:]

MR. BASSETT. - DEAR SIR — -We have just came in from an untiring search. About 2 o'clock this morning news was brought to Capt. Curtice, that Will Farnsworth, who had been taken to the Relay House on account of sickness yesterday, had broken the windows, and in a state of insanity had escaped with nothing but his shirt on. Search was instantly made for him, and not until about 8 o'clock this morning did we find him. We tracked him through the sand by his bare feet, and over the fences by the blood from his hands. We traced him some four miles, over high hills and through the woods, and by the looks of his track, I should think that be ran all the way. When found, he had come to himself, and had gone into a neighboring house. He was so weak that he could scarcely stand, and he looks very miserable, yet on the whole he is doing well. Mr. Tarr, is also quite sick with the fever and ague. and looks pretty bad.—

Yesterday we had 37 sick men in the hospital. It is more sickly now than it has been at any time this season. It has been very cold of late for three or four nights, and in the daytime it is very warm, indeed, just the right kind of weather for fever and ague.

As I write I hear the heavy roar of artillery in the direction of Harper's Ferry. Last night the Col had a private telegraphic dispatch from Gen. Geary, in Gen. Banks' division. He says “I am writing on a 32 pounder, just captured from the enemy! We had ten hours hard fighting! The rebels loss is terrific! The Union forces triumphant! Glorious Victory!” But judging from the booming of the cannon in that direction, I think they are at it again. We are anxiously awaiting news, when I will inform you of everything of note, I enjoy excellent good health and spirits.

Please give my love to my wife and tell her I am well.

With regards, I remain truly yours,



Oconto Pioneer, October 31, 1861

Camp Correspondence.

Camp Boardman, Md., Oct. 19, '61.

FRIEND GINTY: In our new and exceedingly comfortable quarters, on which we have located since I last wrote to you, I will endeavor to drop a few lines to our “friends at home.” Shortly after I wrote you my last, we were ordered to change our quarters and encamp anew about three quarters of a mile from our old camp on the self same piece of ground which we have trod to the stroke of fife and drum, during the summer months now past, where we have learned nearly to perfection every portion of drill, from the manuel of “arms” to “skirmishing.” Consecrated by such use, we concluded to devote a part of it to our “camp.” No sooner was it concluded by our Colonel to move, and the order read on “parade,” than was the promptness with which it was responded to; tents were struck at daybreak, tables pulled down, knapsacks packed, and in six ours afterwards, the 4th were snugly ensconsced in their new quarters. We moved by railroad. The Quartermaster appointed your humble servant as conductor and superintendent, the duties of which were somewhat onerous. Amid the bustle that prevailed, bad and baggage were removed safely to a much more desirable situation. Our Colonel has again modestly named the new camp in honor of our Major, F. A. Boardman. It is situated on a beautiful plain of moderate dimensions, gently sloping to the south, extending close to both the B & O and Harper's Ferry R. Roads. We are told by some of the oldest citizens that this is the very spot on which the patriot Lafayette encamped during the Revolutionary war. We have already found a trophy in the shape of a “sergeant's sword,” and shall keep it among other things which we will be apt to gather during this campaign, most of which will probably be from traitors to the very government which the patriot Lafayette spilled his precious blood and treasure to achieve for us.

We hope to move away from here into active service, though we have been busily employed in building entrenchments enclosing a fort which is in course of construction, under the superintendence of a detachment of Duryea's Zouaves, who are under charge of a U. S. engineer of the Regular Service Corps. It is situated so as to completely command the junction and the track of both rails which join here. In less than ten days it will be completed, and ready to receive a number of heavy siege guns which are intended to be placed therein. It is of Hectagon form and will accommodate about 400 men.

Have you heard of the late fight near Harper's Ferry and the noble part our Third Wisconsin boys played in it? I am happy to state that it was an Oconto boy that first leaped upon the 32 pounder which they took from the enemy. Most every one on the Oconto knows CHAUNCEY BEEBE. He is the man. He was up here yesterday, as was also his Colonel. They gave us a full description of the fight. CHAUNCEY says the boys stood up to the work nobly. The most important capture is 35,000 bushels of wheat, which the rebels had in store at the Harper's Ferry Mills. He says the bayonet charge was terrific and desperate. Only think of 600 men driving back 2,000 infantry and 500 cavalry. But the enemy were routed at every corner. BEEBE is a good fellow, and came up here for the purpose of getting into our company, and will probably succeed by transferring a man who is not a “Driver” to his place. It seems that is going to devolve upon us to keep up a good name, which our 1st, 2d, and 3d Regiments have so nobly won; and now if we cannot, or rather if we do not, I cannot more clearly express the sentiment of the fate which we hope will await us, should be ever disgrace our arms, than to quote the words of the “Prophet” to “Lockiel” who says:
“And the blackness of ashes should mark where we stood,
And a wild mother screen o'er her famishing brood.”
The weather is fast approaching to an uncomfortable state of atmosphere, especially at night, with such cold damp fogs which frequent this section of country. Our overcoats (which are and excellent article) are already in full use for guard and picket duty. We have just parted, a day or two since, with Lieut. ST. ORES, who goes home on “recruiting service.” You would scarcely believe it, but it was hard for him to leave us. We hope his stay will be short.

Besides our new uniform, the Government has furnished us with the celebrated Springfield rifle, which will shoot well 600 yards. We are now practicing “target shooting” daily, in small parties. If we can ever aim as well in battle, we would soon mow down the enemy's ranks by the thousand. Our Colonel is a good marksman, and takes much pleasure in this exercise, as well as every other that tends to our efficiency as soldiers. Ere October is over, we expect to hear of decisive work. It is said that 50,000 men have gone on a Naval expedition during the past week. We wish we were with them. More anon.

Yours truly, U. B. PEARSALL,
Orderly Serg't Company H.,
“Oconto River Drivers.”

P. S. I neglected to mention that our Company has been reinforced by a detachment from one of the New York Regiments. The reinforcement consists of WM. BETTS. an old Oconto Boy.
U. B. P.


Janesville Daily Gazette, October 31, 1861

From the Fourth Regiment.

Oct. 27, 1861

The present war, if productive of no other beneficial.results, has at least proved a stimulus to literary effort. Many a man who never before dreamed of devoting his literary talent to the production of articles for the press, now, that he is at the “seat of war,” feeling assured that his commucations will find insertion, is induced to correspond” for a paper at home, hoping thus to gain notoriety by the use of the pen, when opportunity or inclination does not enable him to obtain an enviable reputation by the use of the sword. Another takes this method to answer the numerous enquiries of friends at home, ever anxious to ascertain his whereabouts and whatabouts, Class me as you like.

This evening finds me seated on my knapsack, soldier style, portfolio on the knee, writing for the Gazette by the light of a candle inserted in the socket of a bayonet thrust barbarously into the floor (?) of my tent.

Here we of the “Giant Fourth” are staying at the Relay House, nine miles from Baltimore, and thirty-one from the federal capital. Here we have been for the past three months, and here we have a fair prospect of remaining during the coming winter.

The object of keeping so large a force stationed at this point, is to guard the Thomas Viaduct, a beautiful stone structure spanning the Patapsco river. Over this bridge the Washington branch of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad passes on to Washington, and over it the greater portion of the privisions for the grand army before Washington. Hence the great importance of its preservation. This importance will be greater if Jeff shall so far succeed in obstructing the navigation of the Potomac as to prevent the use of that thoroughfare for the transportation of army supplies. That this point is guarded with a jealous eye by the higher military authorities is apparent from the fact that a battery is in process of erection, and nearly completed, on a commanding eminence overlooking the bridge and surrounding country. A few days since five brass field pieces arrived by the cars, and were drawn up to the battery. A mortar and a columbiad are daily expected to complete the armament of this fortification. The guns already received are beautiful rifled 12-pounders.

Col. Paine, our commander, is a universal favorite, not only with his men, but also with all others with whom he has become associated. Some enterprising stationer has taken advantage of this fact and supplied us with a very good article of note paper bearing a tolerable likeness of the colonel on the first page. Since then, but few letters have left camp not writted upon “Col. Paine paper.”

A laughable incident occurred one evening last week at dress parade. The Col is very exact, not only in matters relating to military maneuvres, but also in matters of dress and general appearance. On several occasions he had occasion to caution his men against appearing at review and parade without wearing a full suit of blue uniform. On the occasion referred to, the colonel made his appearance, wearing a grey cap. When informed of the fact by one of the captains, he turned to the batallion saying— “Boys, I have just been informed that I have appeared at parade with a grey capon, After parade is dismissed, if you will step over to the sutler's tent you will find a barrel of apples there charged to my account.” It is perhaps needless to add that the boys embraced the opportunity, and found the apples as per agreement.

There has been considerable excitement in camp since the fight at Edward's Ferry. At one time since then it was thought that we would be called out, though there seems to be but little prospect of it at present. We are kept in readiness to march on short notice. GUN.


Evergreen City Times, November 1, 1861

Our Army Correspondence.

Letter from the Fourth Regiment.

Oct. 20th, 1861.

FRIEND ROSS:—The fervid heat of the summer's sun has abated; the colder breath of the autumnal blast has succeeded; yet no martial blast is sounded in our ears calling us forth to the battle's deadly fray. We are still doomed to sit perched up here among these hills week after week and behold our brethren rushing railroad speed to the scene of active operations, while we, like Moses, may climb a high mountain and look upon the promised land, but are not permitted to enter. We who were among the first to respond to our country's call, after the bombardment of Fort Sumter, and who came, nerved with fiery zeal and filled with martial ardor, burning with earnest desire to meet our country's foes, hand to hand and steel to steel upon the gory field,—we are compelled to lounge around camp and feed our hopes upon the empty bombast of flaming newspaper articles which magnify every little skirmish to a glorious victory, till we have lost all the essential qualities of good fighting men except discipline. We are not the sane men we were at home, either mentally, morally, physically, intellectually, or politically considered; we have changed in all. The enthusiasm that warmed the soul, fired the eye, and developed itself in every action, is now changed into a matter of course business transaction that may possibly affect us collaterally, but exciting little or no interest. If this state of things lasts much longer, the Wisconsin 4th will go to battle like an army of hirelings with no heart in the work. Our company returned from the railroad on the 17th, after playing the owl for five long weeks. We travelled nights and slept days, and despite our earnest endeavors to immortalize ourselves; though we peered into every nook, and stared at every bush in hopes of finding some prowling Secesh to reward us for our labors, only a few were successful and reaped all the glory. Only four had the good fortune to perform any exploit that entitles them to the remembrance of posterity, Brownwell Smith captured a gun with an injured lock and kept it about two weeks, when an order came from Gen. Dix commanding its restoration to the proper owner. Eastwood shot a dog, and Corporals Lucas and Sharpe took a nigger down to Annapolis, delivered him into bondage, received the reward, divided the spoils, and had a glorious old spree with the money! Thinking that we ought to save our country in some nobler employment we determined to return to camp and join the “Irish Brigade,” take the shovel and pick and work upon the entrenchments where we all could have a chance to signalize ourselves, which we accordingly did.

After reaching the camp the company held a meeting for the transaction of company business. We voted that at each payday we would each pay $100 into the sick fund and have said fund in charge of a committee consisting of one commissioned, one non-commissioned officer, and one private, Tho commissioned officer to be the President, the non-commissioned officer to be the Secretary, and the private to be the the Treasurer. Capt. Gray, Orderly Durgin, and. private R. R. Danforth were elected such committee. No orders to be paid unless signed by the President and attested by the Secretary. Orderly Durgin made a report of the use of the sick fund contributed by the citizens of Sheboygan County. He had received $76,00 and paid out $21,00, leaving a balance of $55.00 in his hands subject to draft. Corporal Reagan, then resigned his office, and Riley Dwinnell was elected to fill his place.

The general health of the company is excellent, the best of any on the ground. We left five men under the care of Dr. Thompson, who were unable to be removed, viz: J. J, White, J. Beeckler, Corporal O'Connor, Sherman Johnson, James Johnson. The typhoid. fever has been raging here to a considerable extent for some time; there are now forty-seven in the hospital, and several have died lately, The hospital is a regular scarecrow to the boys of Co. C. If they get sick they report to Dr. Thompson, who keeps quite an infirmary, or Company Hospital.

The work on the fortifications is progressing rapidly. The boys work with a Will, lightening the toil by story, laugh and song, and working as though they were logging or harvesting in the West. Thus fulfilling the Scriptural command, “Whatsoever thine hand findeth to do, do it with thy might.”

Last night one of our pickets shot himself in the arm. Almost daily some accident of this kind occurs, the effect of sheer carelessness. Over a dozen have suffered in this way since the regiment Went into camp.

Yesterday a little incident occurred affording considerable merriment, to the boys. The Colonel, who is a very strict disciplinarian, requiring the boys to be very particular with every article of clothing, and have a full blue uniform on at dress parade, came out himself with his old gray cap on. The boys, felt mighty nice to think they had caught the Colonel. When he became informed of the fact, he laughed heartily and said, “Boys, you have got me, but the Sutler has a barrel of apples you can dispose of at my expense.” He accordingly marched them up to the Sutler's tent, spilled the apples upon the ground, and such a shouting, scrabbling, scuffling, pulling, and pushing, as then followed, has not occurred since tho starving Israelites first saw the manna from Heaven scattered over all the ground, and each strove to get his measure full. Such was the excitement, that fingers were peeled, heads rapped, toes squeezed, and caps lost, but no attention was paid to them till the apples were all gone, when they dispersed singing out, “Bully for the Colonel,” their mouths crammed with apple.

Various rumors are afloat as to the probable future of the regiment. One is that the Colonel is to be promoted to Brigadier General and command a brigade by himself. Another is that we are going on the coast under somebody. But all is yet uncertainty and I shall write no more untill things assume a tangible shape. Yours, &c.,



Sheboygan Journal, November 5, 1861


Correspondence of the Journal.

MARYLAND, Oct. 25, 1861.

FRIEND MILLS:—It is the old story nothing of interest to write you about. Company “C” is working upon the fortifications near the Relay House—having been relieved from picket guard by Company “A.” The boys seem to enjoy it first rate, and you can rest assured that their constitutions will not be greatly impaired by hard labor. They are eminently a mirthful set of chaps, and believe in the Doctrine of “Labor made easy,” and go to their labors on the fort with jest and song. The fort is rapidly being pushed towards completion, and will be finished in a very short time. It is octagonal in shape, and will be capable of holding about 200 men. Five brass field pieces—12 pounders-together with a large quantity of shell, &c., arrived here yesterday, to be placed within the fort.

The weather here for the past week has been uncomfortably cold and rainy -about such weather as you have in Sheboygan during the full equinoctial. And as those cloth tents are several degrees colder than out doors, you can judge that we have rather a cold time of it. We shall be under the necessity of fighting our way to some milder climate before long or else freeze to death.

There is at present a great deal of sickness in the 4th Regiment, and I am afraid that our Company has more than its proportion. The building which has all along been occupied as a hospital is full, and another is rapidly filling up. Some twenty-five of Company “C” are at present unable to do duty. on account of sickness—only nine of them however are deemed sever enough to be placed in the army Hospital. As this is considered the “sickly season” here, nothing strange is thought about the increased sick list. Typhoid fever, fever and ague, and all sorts of fevers, seem to be the prevailing dangerous disease and several have lately died in the hospital-—two more buried yesterday.

As Government has promised to open the Baltimore & Ohio R. R., it is rumored around Camp that this Regiment has been detailed to move along the line of it beyond Harper's Ferry and retake and protect it from the Rebels who have now the control of a large share of it. But Camp stories are the least of all to be relied upon, and the probability is that we are to stay here all winter.

The secessionists in Baltimore state that they have received instructions from their Southern friends advising them not to send them any more men and supplies, as they expect to be in Baltimore in about ten days. Many of the “knowing ones” in that city have already hired conveyances and made preparations to leave Baltimore at a moments notice—that is when the struggle comes, It may be possible that they will endeavor to make Baltimore their headquarters, but they will have a happy time of it, you can rest assured of that.

Considerable indignation is felt at the management of our military commanders, in not having the right number of men in the right place and at the right time. In almost every battle that has yet occurred between the Rebels and our forces the former have invariably outnumbered us in the ratio of five to one, and as a natural result we have most invariably been second-best. There is evidently a screw loose somewhere and until it is tightened we can hope for little else than reverses in quick succession. Our army is undoubtedly the largest and best equipped, but somehow or other we manage ed to be worsted in every little engagement. The fact is patent—although I dislike to admit it—we are constantly out-generaled. “That's what's the matter!” And the more men we have under incompetent commanders the worse it is. If the manner in which our side has managed affairs since the Rebellion begun is any criterion for the future, the lover of his country has but little to hope for. This construing a defeat into “the best thing that could happen,” permit me to observe, is played out. Great things are expected of McClellan, and he is determined to nail until he has got a sure thing to save his own reputation, before hazarding a battle. A defeat would wipe his name off the scroll of fame, a fact unnecessary to inform him of probably.

Two men belonging to the Regiment accidently shot themselves a few days ago while on picket.

Yours, &c., HIGH PRIVATE.


Evergreen City Times, November 9, 1861

News from the 4th Regiment.

Just as we were going to press last night, we received a letter from Sargeant WINTERMEYER, of Company C, dated at Boardman, Nov. 3, announcing that the 4th Regiment has received marching orders the evening previous, and all were busy packing up for the march; destination unknown even to the Colonel. Capt. GRAY had left for Wisconsin on a thirty day's furlough, a few hours previous to the receipt of the order to march.


Sheboygan Journal, November 12, 1861


Correspondence of the Journal.

MARYLAND. Nov. 2, 1861.

FRIEND MILLS:—I have nothing new to write to-day, excepting that there is a rumor in camp that the 4th regiment moves to Washington next week, and that the 16th Maine regiment is to take its place at the Relay House. The ruMor hailed with great satisfaction by the entire regiment.

Capt. GRAY, of Co. C, has received a furlough for 30 days, and leaves here for Milwaukee this afternoon.

The weather here now is of the severest kind. Yesterday a regular northeaster set in, accompanied by wind and rain; and while I write, it is in all its fury—blowing down tents, and raising the very “dickins” with camp equippage in general. Our tents are but illy prepared to resist such stormy weather, and as a consequence the soldiers are faring pretty roughly just at present. The sick list will undoubtedly be largely increased for the next few days, on account of this change.

Fort Dix—the name given to the fort building here—is nearly finished, and will he ready for use about next week.

The Quartermaster—who has just returned from Washington—informs me that he has obtained new blankets and knit woolen jackets for the entire regiment. When these arrive the Wisconsin Fourth will be the best and most completely equipped and appointed regiment in the service of the U. States, Thanks to the energy and perseverance of Quartermaster M'Coy.

Since my last, two persons have been accidentally shot, and one purposely shot by some rebel while on picket—. None of them, however, are fatal, Two persons have also died in the hospital since my last. The hospital continues to be full. Co. “C” is, I am sorry to say, suffering the most from sickness, but Sergeant (Doc.) THOMPSON, by his skill and attention, is bringing all of the boys through safe, and without the loss of a single one.

I write this in haste, as Capt. GRAY is to take it as far as Milwaukee.

Yours, &c., HIGH PRIVATE.


Manitowoc Herald, November 14, 1861

Letter from 4th Regiment.

Nov. 4th, 1861..

DEAR HERALD:—Upon my honor, this is the last, the very last letter which I shall have the pleasure of writing from here.— The shades of night tomorrow eve, will fail over-as in camp at Cambridge, Md., which place, if you will, but cast your ayes over the map of this State, you will discover to be on the eastern shore of Chesapeak Bay, below Annapolis; at the head of Choptank Bay. Here, Col. Paine said to-night we will remain until after election, doubtless to have a salutary effect upon the red-hot secessionists who hold forth there. Of course the Baltimore Sun, Republican, and such like sheets, will howl “coercion,” and if Md. concludes to have “no peace,” will say that she was driven to war at the point of northern bayonets. Well let them howl. It is about the only solace left them. After the 6th Nov, then, we expect to go to Newport News, or Fortress Monroe,and will probably be one among the many happy crew who will settle down near Richmond Va., between now and 1st Dec. God grant it.— I hope that now, as we are going into active service, I may have a little more too write that will interest and suit the taste of your readers, The boys to-night are perfectly crazy, a large bon fire, yes, one, two, three of them, light up the darkness of the night, and it is a crowd of merry laughing fellows gathered round.

This rumor is realty the best thing that has happened to us lately, as a regiment.

In three-months any pool will stagnate, and in that time, spent in inactivity and confinement, it would be an exemplary regiment indeed, which would withstand its effects. Ours couldn't. It stagnated; and not looking for relief from without, turns ed to, and kicked up a commotion among its members. Discontent, twin sister of idleness, was busy, and murmurs against everything, were indulged in freely. We could bear distinctly the roar of cannon at Ball-Bluff, and at Harper's Ferry, and knew that strife was rife, our brethren at work and we doing nothing but child's play; guarding a railroad which needed none - 4th Wisconsin, the “pet regiment,” guarding R. R. Ugh!—

The men had time, and inclination to find fault. Officers merits, and more frequently, demerits, were discussed, The members of Co. E, 70 in all signed a petition to Capt. Moore to resign: Lieuts. Brown and Weatherwax, of Company F have both resigned. And our Company has had its tribulations and turmoil. But we are going to move now, in the action we will forget our difficulties, so I will not now mention them. I guess the heartfelt sentiment of every man in regard to the change is “Thank God.”

I was just at the largest bon-fire, where the band is playing. While there the effigy of Jeff. Davis was brought into the ring, and with due solemnity consigned to the flames. Peace to his ashes!

Major Paulding, U. S. Pay Master. comes to-morrow morning. And if he will not accompany the regiment to Cambridge, and pay them there, a delay of a day will be necessary. We privates receive this pay day $26.

Our efficient Quarter-Master MC Coy, has been busy as he always is in providing for the comfort of the boys. The result of his endeavors we feel these cold nights. A regulation blanket, in which one can coverup “head and heels,” a knit woolen shirt, for out side, fatigue wear, and two pair drawers; cotton flannel.— Then the danger arising from wearing a cartridge box, with 20 or 40 rounds in it, supported only by a waist belt has been obviated by supplying a shoulder strap, which supports it. It has been the cause of the ruin, physically, of many a good soldier. Over twenty have already been discharged for breeches arising from drilling with the old waist belt, from our regiment.

I forgot to mention some time ago, that Sergt. Watermann of Company K, was at home, Chilton recruiting for the 4th. Regiment. Those who would like to come on and join us now, can have the opportunity. Capt. E. B. Gray, company C, left yesterday for Wisconsin on a thirty day furlough. A dispatch was telegraphed to him this morning calling him back, but it is doubtful if he returns.

Mrs. Col. Paine, and daughter are still here, and I believe, are to accompany Col. Paine through to Fortress Monroe.

At Cambridge I will write again from some new CAMP.

P. S.—Three companies of the 10th Maine have arrived. One relieves the rail road guard; one the company at the fort, and the other goes to Ellicott's mills.

The remainder come on to-morrow and will occupy our place. CAMP.


Wisconsin State Journal, November 14, 1861

The Fourth Wisconsin regiment, Col. H. E. Paine, With the 2d Massachusetts battery and Reading (Pa.) cavalry, have moved from Baltimore to the eastern shore of Maryland, and are to be stationed at Princess Anne, to operate in Accomac county and the eastern peninsular of Virginia, should occasion require. While the regiment was at the Relay House considerable sickness prevailed, chiefly typhoid and camp fevers, and no less than sixty-nine of the convalescent invalids were so prostrated by the voyage across the bay that it was necessary to send them back to the Baltimore Military Hospital.


Evergreen City Times, November 15, 1861

Our Army Correspondence.

Letter from the Fourth Regiment.

MARYLAND, Nov. 3d, 1861.

MR. H. N. ROSS - DEAR SIR; The last time you heard from me, from Camp Randall in the neighborhood, you undoubtedly expected the 4th Wisconsin Regiment would move to Washington at that time, judging from what I said in my letter. Though it was generally believed in the regiment that we would move there, we have remained in this neighborhood up to this time, changing only from Camp Randall to Camp Bean, and from there to Camp Boardman, where we are now, but which we shall undoubtedly leave to-morrow, having received marching orders last evening. No one, not even the Colonel, knows as yet our destination and numerous rumors as to whither we are agoing are afloat, but without any foundation. The one rumor which, according to the evidences, is deemed more creditable than any of the rest, is that we are going to Newport News, near fortress Monroe, to join several other regiments. I do not place any dependence on any of them, but shall await the results, and inform you of the same as soon as possible.

Everybody in the regiment is busily engaged, though it be sabbath, packing their knapsacks, &c.,. &c., and getting ready for the march. If you could see the cheerful faces of the boys while packing their things, you would say they are pleased with their marching orders, and seem to be anxious to get an opportunity to do their duty to their country and loved ones at home.

The Colonel seems to be highly pleased with this new turn of our affairs. While giving orders in regard to the conduct of the march this morning, he said that inasmuch as no one could carry any more clothing than allowed by the regulations, the boys could not take their Wisconsin uniform with them; that he had made arrangements to send them to Wisconsin, for which purpose, those who wished to sends their should mark it, and put it up into a bundle or a box with the proper address and deposit it at the Quartermaster's tent, where the same should be boxed and placed into the hands of the State agent, who will see that they are properly delivered. You may expect a great many uniforms from the “boys” of Company “C,” who do not send them home for value, as much as for curiosity. The boys are all running about to get boxes for the purpose of packing them.

The health of the regiment is about as usual. About ten members of Company “C” are sick, and two or three are dangerously so; all with Typhoid Fever.

Fortunately we have not lost a member of our company by sickness, though three or four have lately died in the Hospital, belonging to Company “K and Company “I.”

Capt. GRAY left yesterday afternoon for a furlough for thirty days, for Wisconsin, for the benefit of his health. He told us to telegraph him immediately if we received marching orders.

Lieut. PAULI is now, and during the Captain's absence, in command of the company, and makes a very efficient officer. He also acts as Adjutant in case Adjutant ALDRICH is absent.

My health is as good as usual, and a soldier's life agrees with me better than my friends expected it would. You will hear from us in our new camp.

Any letters to the 4th should be directed to Washington, until their place of destination is ascertained.

Yours in haste, G. W.

The Fourth Regiment on the March.

Correspondence of the Times.

Nov. 7, 1861.

MR. H. N. ROSS - DEAR SIR: According to my promise I will give you a hurried sketch of our march hither. We left Camp Boardman, near Relay House, at about ten o'clock A. M., the fourth inst. having been relieved by the 10th Maine regiment, which is by the by a powerful Regiment and able to fill our place. We marched to the cars, which were in readiness, and soon filled them, and after our baggage was properly stowed away, we started for Baltimore amidst the cheers of the inhabitants, who seemed to be grieved at our departure. No one could help noticing that we had gained the good will of the inhabitants in that locality while amongst them, and that the gentlemanly behavior of the officers and men of the regiment had done more for our cause than fire and sword would have done. When we arrived there hardly a cheer could be heard. How different when we left.

Upon our arrival in Baltimore the battalion was formed in the depot, and marched through the city to the steamer Adelaide, which lay in readiness for us at the landing, about two miles from the depot, and were soon on board, each company in its respective place. I was in Baltimore a number of times while in its vicinity and saw while there a number of regiments pass through the city and arrive in the several depots, but I never yet saw one (though there may have been,) that attracted so much attention as our Wisconsin regiments. While we were marching through the city, the streets were crowded with spectators of observed as as we played. A different feeling seems to prevail in that city, since secession and secessionists have to be quiet, and the union men can express their sentiments more freely. There are about 1200 or 1500 troops in and about the city of Baltimore now; if it were not for that, secessionism would, I think, have the upper hand yet.

After our effects were on board of the Adelaide, and the Artillery and Cavalry that came with us on board of the Georgia; we left the city and steamed into the Chesapeake. I think at about 8 o'clock P. M., although I am not positive in regard to the time as the most of us had already lad down on deck ready for a sleep. We expected to arrive at our landing next morning at two o'clock, but boats do not run as fast here as they do North, and did not arrive until about two o'clock the next day, near the village called Somerset, about eight miles distant. We immediately disembarked and formed about one-half of a mile from the landing, as it was too wet and swampy to form any nearer, and immediately proceeded on our journey in the following order. First, and advance guard, consisting of five or six mounted men as scouts, and about sixty men of our regiment. Next our regiment, then the Cavalry and Artillery with a battery of six rifled cannon. We arrived at Somerset at about 8 o'clock in the evening having been detained in waiting for the Cavalry and Artillery to get ready to form our line of march, which we did about two miles from the landing. The distance to our present stopping place (“Snow Hill”), is about twenty-five miles.

Wisconsin in some parts is noted for muddy roads, and I have seen specimens of them myself, but the road over which we marched surpasses all I have seen yet. After arriving at Somerset, the Colonel concluded to encamp during the night and continue the march next day, as it was terribly dark. The inhabitants of the village brought wood into our camp for camp fires, and soon the latter were blazing up and the boys were lieing around them in their oil-cloth blankets, on the ground, and covered with their woolen blankets.

At 7 o'clock the next morning, after eating a little bread and raw pork, beef or bacon, we took up our march again, while at the same time it commenced raining and rained all day, making the road still worse. We marched all day, rain or no rain. We were bound to get to this place that evening, cost what it would, and only a few had to fall back and come with the artillery. I think there were only two of Company C who had to do so, while others could get along very well without their knapsacks, which they threw on the artillery wagons and marched on. “Muddy road” is no name for it. You can hardly imagine what we went through. Every little while we marched through regular creeks of water, and very frequently one of the boys would slip and fall into a mud puddle almost out of sight!

When we came within a mile of this village we thought we had arrived at some river, and would have to wait for boats to take us across; but we were mistaken; the command “Forward” was given, and we marched through the water which was from a foot to a foot and a half deep, and was produced by the tide which happened to set in just in time for us to march through. Our noble Colonel was everywhere cheering on the men, and when we arrived where the water was the deepest he said: “Go right through, my boy's; jump right in; we have only a short distance to march to reach the village, where you will be taken care of.” And jump in we did, the water rushing over the tops of the boots of those who were lucky enough to wear them, and marched through.

On arriving in the village of Snow Hill we were glad to get vacant places enough to lie down. Company C occupied a cooper shop about 14 by 16 feet. A part of us, the subscriber included, slept upstairs, which was only half boarded up. As soon as coffee could be cooked we received some, which was the first we had had in three days, having lived on bread or crackers and raw bacon and ham during our march, to sustain us in carrying our knapsacks, which are the meanest ever invented, as they do not fit at all, and the straps which are about one inch wide, and well calculated to cut off a person's shoulders, but not fit for much else.

To-day the weather is fair and the sun is shining, and the boys improve their time in cleaning their guns and cleaning and drying their clothing; all feeling very well, much to the surprise of their officers, who had all they could do to keep up, having nothing to carry.

The purpose of this expedition is only known by our field officers, but the rumor is that we shall soon have a fight; that several regiments of rebels are entrenched about fifteen miles from here and waiting for us. I do not know whether there is any truth in the rumor. If there is, our Colonel who has command of this expedition, will wait for reinforcements before he makes any attack. I might inform you of a number of rumors, but will only give you facts as fast as they present themselves. Yours &c.,
G. W.


The Philadelphia Inquirer, November 21, 1861

Correspondence of the Philada. Inquirer.

November 18, 1861.

I arrived in this town on Saturday evening last, and found the place in a state of intense excitement, occasioned by an expected fight between the troops under commend of Gen. LOCKWOOD, composed in part of the Fourth Wisconsin, Fourteenth Wisconsin, Second Indiana, First Michigan, Second Delaware, First Eastern Shore Maryland Home Guard, NIM's Boston battery, (six brass rifled field pieces), Capt. RICHARD's Company of Independent Cavalry, PURNELL's Legion, and 500 of DURYEA's New York Zouaves, numbering in all, some 10,000 men, and the Rebels on this side of the Chesapeake. The Fourth Wisconsin, Colonel PAYNE, and Second Delaware, Col. WHARTON, had left this place on Friday morning, and joined the other troops at Newtown, some sixteen miles from here, and four or five miles this side the Virginia line, from which place, Gen. LOCKWOOD, on Saturday, despatched a flag of truce to Drummondtown, with Gen. DIX's Proclamation, since which time, until this afternoon, we have waited with a good deal of anxiety to hear the result, when a messenger arrived here from the army, who has just given me the particulars, he having accompanied the flag of truce.

On Saturday morning, twenty cavalry, under command of Captain MERRILL, and two other officers, left General LOCKWOOD's head-quarters, with the flag and General DIX's proclamation, for the purpose of delivering the proclamation and demanding the dispersing of the Confederate troops under Col. SMITH, numbering, from the best information received, some 3000 men. SMITH'S troops could not be found, he having broken up his camp and retired.

They met, however, 175 of his men, all armed with shot guns, except four, who had old United States muskets. These men stated that their Colonel had disbanded all his forces except 400, who were armed with United States muskets, and intended making, if possible, his way across the bay to Richmond. These 400 muskets, it seems, were all the arms of much value in their possession, except six pieces of cannon, which had been hid. They also passed two entrenchments, poorly constructed, one for nine guns, near Temperanceville,and the other for 14 guns, at a place called Newtown, in neither of which had any pieces been mounted. The party arrived at Drummondtown about six o'clock, and found that the Secession flag had been taken down from its staff on the Court House about fifteen minutes before their arrival. Captain MERRILL then read to the citizens General DIX's proclamation, and made them a speech, when they refused the terms and said a stand would be made in Northampton county, where they were prepared to meet them.

The party encamped for the night, and, on Sunday morning, hoisted the Stars and Stripes on the same pole over the Court House on which, only the day before, the Rebel emblem flaunted to the breeze, when they returned to Newtown. Previous to their return, however, General LOCKWOOD had despatched the Fourth Wisconsin, Fourteenth Wisconsin, Sixth Michigan, DURYEA'S Zouaves, one Indiana Regiment, Captain RICHARDS’ Independent Pennsylvania Cavalry, and Second Delaware, under command of Col. PAYNE, upon the sacred soil to enforce the demands of the flag. He remained at Newtown until this morning, when, accompanied by the remainder of his force, he followed, and it is expected that Drummondtown will be occupied to-night.

It is a little amusing to learn how potent the presence of our troops is for the cure of treason, according to the narrative of the soldiers who accompanied the truce party. Many good Union men were to be found, and one man, the keeper of a hotel, treated the party, and swore he was a true Union men, and always had been; this man, it was subsequently ascertained, had been one of the most violent Rebels in the place.



The Manitowoc Herald, November 21, 1861


November 7th 1861.

DEAR HERALD:—At last we have made more. We have had a change. The consummation devoutly to be wished has been attained. Those who prayed so ardently for “marching orders” have been thoroughly satisfied; at least I have. I will tell you something about it. My pen is limber, and that is the only part of me which is not used up two much so to move. I wrote to you just before our departure, and will tell what has transpired since,— The usual delay, which compels a margin of five or six hours in calculating military movements-at least so far as concerns the actions of the 4th Wisconsin, made it after 12m of Monday when we were loaded on the cars and were off. The 10th Maine, relieved us. They are a stout brawny, set of fellows; and well sustain the name of old Maine.

The boys were all animation, and shouted as loud as they did on our progress here through the States. We were received in Baltimore by a distinguished assemblage of the negro population, who flocked around with faces expressive of admiration and wonder.

We marched through loyal Baltimore to the wharf, where lay the steamer Adelaide, aboard of which we marched, were assigned our quarters, and prepared to make ourselves at home, The steamer Georgia half a mile up the river, received part of our baggage It also received Capt Freedmans Cavalry Co. from Pennsylvania. Over the river, the Pocahontas was loading Nim's battery of Reston Light Artillery. Both these companies were to accompany us on our expedition. At this time our destination was not known to us. Surmises were plenteous enough, but nothing definite was known. Sealed orders were given to Col. Paine, who was placed in command of the expedition, by Gen. Dix, to be opened after leaving.

Tho fort on Federal Hill lay opposite us, and against the clear evening sky the parapet with its Zouave sentinels, and huge columbiads, looking so formidable and ferocious, were clearly defined. The evening gun, at sunset was fired and soon after we left, Company C. was given the outside upper deck for its quarters, and we prepared to make our beds, for the purpose of obtaining what sleep we could, for it was rumored that we had a long march before us on the morrow. Orderly Durgin and I spread our blankets on the deck choosing, of course, the softest place, and were soon in a sound sleep, It was not quite daylight when I got up the next morning. The Georgia was in our rear and sight. The Pocahontas further behind and another craft, carrying our provisions and train of artillery, was steaming up away in our rear. At 7 A. M. we left the Chesapeake and entered the Wicomico river, up whose sinuous channel, sometimes going ahead, then, “running her nose in the mud.” as the old pilot expresses it, backing and twisting, we worked our way. At White Haven we landed and immediately took up our line of march.

At a halt half a mile from the wharf, those who were sick, or thought themselves unable to stand the fatigue were sent back to Baltimore. Several from Co. C. were sent back. Here too many of the boys relieved their knapsacks of blouses, overalls, jackets, and whatever of superfluous weight there was in it. The whole route after this was strewn with these articles. Three days rations of meat and bread had been provided us, before leaving, but it was nearly all gone.

After a march of two miles, a halt was ordered, and a team despatched to the steamer for provisions. It came back with half rations of bread and pork. There was no time to cook the pork so we ate it raw. It wasn't very palatable, but a hungry stomach ain't very fastidious, and we soon satisfied our hunger on this plain fare. The march was resumed and about 7 P. M. we reached Princess Anne. The unaccustomed weight of the knapsack, and the labor of the march was very fatiguing. So mach so, that Col. Paine decided to stop over night there. We bivouacked in the open field, the second time in our military life. The wind blew cold, and the sky was threatening rain. So tired were the men that we spread blankets and ours selves on the damp ground, and soon all but the guard were sound asleep. Camp fires were after ward built and kept burning during the night by the guard; round these we clustered and excepting the for times I was awakened by cold or to replace my blanket I never slept sounder. I got an inkling of what kind of field officers we have, when awakening, I found Lieut. Col. Bean replacing my blanket, which was off, and Col, Paine was doing the same to some one else a little wars off. This was after 12 o'clock.

The rain of the next morning woke us up early, and after packing knapsacks we were ready for the march. We had no rations except salt pork to eat, a little of which I managed to eat, but it was dreadfully “agin natur” to eat raw dead hog! We set off in the rain, feeling a little sore, but willing to march; for the report was currant now that a brush with the enemy was somewhere ahead. A delay was had of nearly an hour, outside, the village. Col. Paine had heard that the men had no rations and he went back to Princess Anne, and purchased a quantity of food, which after a march of four miles was distributed. There was some 360 lbs ham and bacon, 4 bbls crackers and 5 cheeses, which, divided, among the regiment, was a good lunch for each man. After a few miles we struck a sandy country, and here commenced the tug of war. A few now and then would drop out too fatigued to go further, and were picked up by the artillery and cavalry, which were in our rear. They picked up about 73 during the whole march. It was performed on a quick step. This was needless, but the advance guard took the step, and the rest of us were too proud to fag. The march was very tiresome. The weight of the knapsack and gun was over fifty pounds; the sand sometimes ankle deep, and the march quick step. The rain in the morning had wet us to the skin, and when we did halt for a few moments, we were chilled by the cold north wind, so we had but little rest after all. It was dark when five miles from here, and the worst part of the whole march was before us. We could no longer see the best path, and we went splashing through the mud, and water, sometimes over our knees in the mud, again to an equal depth in water, contents of a ditch. Our, or my movements at least, were entirely mechanical. It made but little difference whether the step was quick or double quick. For twenty or thirty rods at a time the road was over flowed. Many went round the ponds, but Co. H, Capt, Loys' River Drivers went, through thick and thin. Capt. Loy was full of spirit and his conduct did more good to the men, than anything else then.

The last two miles of our march was through water entirely ankle and sometimes knee deep. The tide was up and the country was flooded. As we approached the town a halt was ordered, while arrangements were made to quarter us. I was fortunate enough to get a footing on a foot bridge. The secessionists had torn part of it, though, and we we had to jump into the water, at least two feet deep, and ford the overflow forty rods to the bridge, over the Pocomoke. While standing on the foot bridge I saw many a poor fellow fall from sheer exhaustion into the water. I passed one soldier laying flat in the mud, his face on his hands, tired completely out. We passed on unable to help him for each was selfishly desperate. The artillery picked them all up.

We arrived at Snow Hill at 9 P. M. It would have been impossible to have marched further. Co. C, was quartered for the night in a barn, where we were served with a ration of crackers and a cup of coffee,, after which we put on dry clothes, those who were fortunate enough to have them, turned in, and I for one never enjoyed a sleep more. This morning we are up some, most all limping and complaining of sore feet and shoulders, but in good spirits.I found the town an old fashioned one, nothing very prepossessing in its appearance. The military, officers en costume, cavalry and artillery, with sabers clanking, and waist belt studded with revolvers and bowies, make it lively enough. I have obtained a copy of the only paper printed here. The shield — which I send you.

The election excitement is not great. It is a tight race, and evenly contested between Secession and union. If the balance incline any way on the former side. In regards to our further movements I only know that we are to march as soon as reinforcements come mp, with further orders. At Jenkins Bridge 12 miles south the enemy are posted in force, variously estimated at from 1000 to 5000. And some place it even higher. There is work ahead, and we will soon have a hand in. The boys are eagerly waiting, and unless some panic strikes us, you will soon hear a good account from Col. Paines command. We may have a brush this week. I hope so. We are waiting for our prevision train and baggage to come up and a farther supply of amunition for the artillery, then onward.

I will write again at the first convenient place, All letters to this regiment should be directed to Baltimore, Md., where we will return when our object is effected. CAMP.


Oconto Pioneer, December 11, 1861

Our Camp Correspondence.

November 23d, 1861.

FRIEND GINTY:—On the morning of the 4th inst, the Wisconsin Fourth received orders to strike, their tents and hold themselves in readiness to fall in at any moment. Accordingly, our little village of tents which had so long stood upon the eminence near the Relay House was immediately razed to the ground, and knapsacks well packed and small rolls of white canvass were all that remained. Early on that morning, many of the neighboring inhabitants had assembled to give us a cheer and a hearty shake of the hand; for it will be remembered that our regiment had occupied that important post for months and had formed many pleasant acquaintances, and several persons in that section had previously enlisted with us, who, upon leaving, left behind them fathers, mothers, wives, brothers and sisters. The parting was much like the one never to be forgotten, when we loft the pleasant homes in the far off and beautiful Wisconsin.

Upon the arrival of the Maine 10th, who were to relieve us, we formed in line and marched to the train in waiting, and sped away to the city of Baltimore, there to take steamer for some point, no one knew, except our Colonel, the officer in charge of the expedition.

After the usual delay incumbent upon the embarkation of 1000 men, the steamer put out in the Bay. it being far advanced in the day, and the soldiers seeking a place to rest for the night, all combining to make our situation anything but pleasant, and considerably exciting. Ab last it became quiet, the night being one known only to seamen upon the placid waters of the Chesapeake, while the stars seemed trying to outshine each other and nothing could be heard save the stroke of the powerful walking beam, and the talking of groups of men of their homes in the west.


A History of the 4th Wisconsin Infantry and Cavalry in the Civil War

”…During the regiment's stay in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania's Governor Andrew Curtin and his staff made their way down to the 4th Wisconsin's camp on horseback and attempted to ride through the grounds. A guard armed only with a pick handle asked the Governor for the countersign. An aide answered, “This is the Governor of Pennsylvania.” The dutiful guard remarked that he “did not care if he was the Governor of ten Pennsylvanias he could not cross his beat.” The Officer of the Day was quickly summoned and, following an apology for the guard's behavior, the Governor and his staff were allowed to pass. Governor Curtin replied that no apology was necessary as the soldier was obeying orders. Perhaps it was the guard's fortitude or perhaps it was the pick handle he wielded as a weapon, but upon hearing of and witnessing first hand the 4th Wisconsin's shortage of arms, Governor Curtin loaned a portion of the regiment several old smoothbore muskets from Pennsylvania's arsenal and one round of cartridge for each man.—

On Tuesday, July 23, the men started for Baltimore and reached the city at 3:00 a.m. the next day. The sentiment of the city's populace was strongly “secesh” and though the inhabitants were under Martial Law, the Badgers took the precaution of charging their smoothbore muskets before marching through downtown. One Badger wrote home that the muskets were loaded “with a ball and three buckshot for the especial benefit of the Plug Uglies of Baltimore, but [we] did not have occasion to use them.” The men passed through the city without incident and pitched their tents in the western part of the city on a hill known as Mount Clare. This campsite was christened “Camp Dix” in honor of the commander of the Department of Maryland, Major General John Adams Dix, and would serve as the regiment's headquarters until July 29.

Mount Clare overlooked the Patapsco River, which was roughly a mile distant. Shortly after their arrival, Newton Culver and many of his comrades made the trek to the “salty” river and went for a swim. That afternoon the Badgers exchanged the smoothbore muskets they had received in Harrisburg for the far superior Model 1842 .69 Springfield rifled musket with “clasp bayonet.” Flint described the new musket to his brother as a “savage shooting thing, carrying an ounce of ball. They are said to be the best in the service [and] are sighted to throw a ball from 1 to 900 yards.” In the afternoon Companies G and K were detailed to guard the nearby Pikesville Arsenal. On Thursday Companies B, E, and F were ordered to replace the Pennsylvania troops that had been policing various points along Baltimore's Northern Central Railroad. Those Badgers left in Camp Dix found Thursday evening to be unseasonably cool. Culver and others, however, still managed to take another dip in the river. After drying off rather quickly, they watched with great curiosity while a nearby company of Duryee's Zouaves drilled.

At 5:00 p.m. on Monday, the 29th, those soldiers not stationed at the arsenal or guarding the railroad boarded a train and left for the Relay House. The men slept in the cars that night and arrived at their destination early the next morning. Tents were erected in a “beautiful grove” near the depot and the site was immediately named Camp Randall in honor of Wisconsin's Governor. The Relay House was located nine miles south of Baltimore at the junction of two important railroads, the Baltimore and Ohio and the Washington Branch of the B&O. Its position was of strategic importance as _ soldiers stationed there could be rapidly dispatched to the west or south to guard any bridges or points along either railroad.

On Wednesday, July 31, 1861, Colonel Paine received the following orders from the Acting Assistant Adjutant General and 15th Infantry Captain, Louis Pelouze:

… You are to make such disposition of your command as will best guard the railroad and bridges on that portion of the railroad between Baltimore and Washington that was recently guarded by the Sixth Massachusetts Regiment Militia, using your own discretion as to the manner in which this should be done.

Paine responded by placing one company of men along the railroad between the Relay House and Annapolis Junction, and several detachments on the surrounding roads. One such detachment under the command of Company I's Sergeant James Farnsworth guarded the woods near Ellicott's Mills on the Harper's Ferry Railroad. Its instructions were to inspect all goods which passed south via the Baltimore and Washington turnpike. Though stationed within nine miles of the regiment's headquarters at Relay House, these various detachments of the regiment guarded almost 20 miles of railroad and countryside.

During the regiment's first few weeks in camp at the Relay House, Colonel Paine's daughter, Lizzie, recalled that the soldiers “were inclined to be careless” and would sometimes wear parts of both their gray and blue uniforms together … “which did not present a very soldierly appearance …

So my father issued an order that only blue uniforms should be worn. One evening at dress parade my Father appeared in his army blue uniform complete except for his cap, which was gray. All during the parade the men were smiling and seemed to feel that they had a good joke on their Colonel. As soon as my Father noticed what he had done he made a pleasant little speech, apologized to the men and invited them to go up to the sutler's tent where they would find a barrel of apples at their disposal.

Newton Culver performed his first official duty as a picket on August 1. The day was long but uneventful, which was probably a relief to the young volunteer. Companies G and K left the Pikesville Arsenal and rejoined the regiment on Monday, August 5. On Friday, August 9, Culver and the rest of Company C “practice fired” their muskets using blank cartridges that did not contain balls. At least four ramrods were fired off, a common mistake that underscored the necessity for drill and plenty of it. Not surprisingly, the men spent much of August drilling. They also guarded railroad bridges and performed picket duty. Camp life eventually settled into something of a routine, “yet sufficient work [was] furnished for both mind and body,” noted Chaplain Barry. “Every day witnessed some improvement in discipline and drill and the development of soldierly qualities. Both officers and men seem to realize fully the importance and necessity of thorough preparation.”

With the arrival of Companies B, E, and F on Monday, August 19, battalion drill began in earnest. The weather was “intensely warm” in August and began to take a toll on the men. “The number of excuses which the men give to be relieved from drill indicates that we are in no condition to be very energetic at the present,” wrote a soldier who went by the pen name of Beloit. “We need invigorating cool weather for awhile, after which we think to be able to do something handsome for the glory of Wisconsin. Ironically, Beloit and his comrades would spend the majority of the war stationed in the swamps and bayous around Baton Rouge, Louisiana, one of the hottest, steamiest, most unhealthy areas of the South.

The Badgers were paid $22 a piece on September 6. One soldier thought “It will just about keep us in spending money although when we were paid I had not had any money for two weeks.” On September 9, Company G's Jerry Flint, who hadn't written his mother in over a month, took pen in hand and described to her the easier side of a soldier's life:

I suppose you think by this time that I'm either dead or lazy it has been so long since I wrote you. But the fact that I have just eaten about a quart of fresh oysters is proof enough that I am lazy. I feel first rate this afternoon for some reason or another. I expect it is because the weather is fine and I have nothing to do, with plenty of money in my pocket. This I think is enough to make any one feel well.

Flint also expressed concern upon learning that a boyhood friend, Roswell Platt, had joined the 1st Wisconsin Infantry:

I have heard by Warren's letters that Roswell has enlisted; I wish to know how it is. I hope he will not enlist without making up his mind that he can stand hardships for although we enjoy ourselves well, it is a rough and hard life. It is no boy's play I assure you. When on duty you have to stand all kinds of weather without hardly any protection. I have seen many cases where boys enlisted just for the novelty but afterwards wished they were at home. I think, however, that Roswell would like it and as for myself I have never been so well satisfied in any other situation.

During the third week of September the 4th Wisconsin Infantry moved its camp 80 rods to the top of a high hill that had a commanding view of the railroad for some distance. The

men named the new site Camp Bean in honor of their lieutenant colonel. On Wednesday the 18th, General McClellan issued orders for the commanders of all brigades and regiments to have their men ready for the field at a moment's notice. “The men all have to keep their knapsacks filled and their cartridge boxes well supplied with cartridges,” noted one soldier. “No man is allowed to go so far from camp as to be out of hearing of the long roll. This all looks pretty much as if there was some fighting to be done pretty soon.”

September closed with a review of the regiment and the presentation of the National colors. The ceremony took place on the last Friday (September 27) of the month and was attended by several dignitaries including Major General John Dix, Brigadier General Abram Duryee, and Assistant Quartermaster Major James A. Belger. At 8:00 a.m., Adjutant Louis Aldrich formed the regiment in line on the parade ground. The men wore their new uniforms and white dress gloves, the latter “presenting a striking and beautiful contrast to the dark blue of their coats.” “The arms were bright and clean,” wrote a reporter from the Baltimore Clipper, “proving that the Wisconsin boys can keep even poor muskets in good condition.” Immediately prior to the presentation, the soldiers on each side of the color guard wheeled to the left and right forming three sides of a square. The guard marched forward and halted after a few paces. Major General Dix stepped forward and placed the National standard in the hands of Colonel Paine. A drizzling rain slowly fell as General Dix addressed the regiment:

Soldiers: Eighty-four years ago the stars and stripes were adopted by the old Federal congress as the national banner … During more than three quarters of a century has it floated over us as the standard of the Constitution and the Union … During that long period of time … it has never been dishonored at home or abroad. It has never sheltered injustice … It has been the emblem of peace, of social improvement, of growth by development, and not by forcible accession.

This flag, soldiers, which the government of your country confides to you, is the same under which your ancestors rallied to cut off the yoke of colonial servitude, the same which your fathers defended against foreign enemies and which you are now called to uphold against the foulest rebellion that ever dishonored a civilized community.

I commit it to your keeping, with no misgivings as to the fidelity or the courage which you will defend it against all its enemies. The noble stage from which you come … will follow you with her best wishes and prayers into the scene of peril which in all probability will soon open upon you.

She will expect you to remember that under that flag you are to uphold her honor, as well as that of the country, of which she is an integrated and inseparable part …

In the name of the Government I commit this banner to you, with the assurance that it will receive no stain in your hands. Let every man consider himself especially charged with its defence [sic]. Let every man determine that it shall never be surrendered while a drop of Wisconsin blood courses in his veins …

“General,” Colonel Paine responded, “in the hour of battle I shall lean upon the valor of those men with an unfaltering trust. I believe they will in that hour cheerfully follow this flag through the gates of death, choosing rather to witness the complete extermination of the Fourth Wisconsin Regiment than the dishonor of its flag.”

“Boys, am I right? Do you say aye?” (The regiment responded with a thundering aye!).

“God of Heaven grant that I may never survive—that not one of you may ever survive —the dishonor of the flag.” Colonel Paine turned toward his men and asked for three cheers for the country's flag and three cheers for Major General Dix. The soldiers responded with three cheers for each followed by a “Wisconsin Tiger.” The band struck up the “Star Spangled Banner” and Colonel Paine placed the colors in the hands of the color bearers “who bore them proudly to the regiment.” Generals Dix and Duree reviewed the men as they marched by in column “firm and steady.” ”… they do as well as regulars,” remarked General Dix. Following the review the officers retired to the Relay House where they enjoyed a “sumptuous dinner.”

On the evening of the 21st a soldier from Company E tried to jump a fence while on picket duty. His musket accidentally went off shattering his arm badly below the elbow. Two days later the Badgers experienced the “coldest night of the season.” Fortunately, “Uncle Sam” had provided the men with two pairs of drawers and “the warmest kind of overcoat” a few days earlier. One soldier “presumed that the winters here will be more disagreeable than those in Wisconsin. It is so near the coast [here] that the winds are dreadfull chilly.” Company G's Jerry Flint hoped that the regiment would be sent further south before the colder weather.

Newton Culver and his comrades in Company C had spent all of September and much of October guarding the railroad between the Relay House and Annapolis Junction. They finally rejoined the regiment at their new camp, Camp Boardman, on October 24. Upon their return, Newton and his comrades elected Riley Dwinnell as Company C's eighth corporal.

Frank Harding and Company G were on picket guard throughout all of September as well. Harding was on duty every other night. His shift typically began at 5:00 p.m. and ended at sunrise the next morning. Harding noticed an increase in illness among his comrades during September and October and informed his father of this fact in a rather cheerless letter dated October 24:

… A great many of our Reg are sick with Typhoid fever. Two died yesterday and are to be buried to day (sic). As yet we have lost none of our company but almost half of them are sick in the Hospital. I haven't seen a sick day since I started and am in hopes I shall get through without much sickness.

The two Badgers that succumbed to Typhoid Fever were Company I's Samuel R. Brainard and Company K's Andrew J. Chicks. Though far from his home and family in Stockbridge, Wisconsin, Private Chicks was not alone on the day of his death. Colonel Paine's wife, his daughter, and a nurse all visited Private Chicks shortly before he succumbed to his illness. Several years after the war, Paine's daughter, Eliza, recalled the death of Andrew Chicks in her narrative, My Life as a Child in the Civil War:

One afternoon I walked through the wards of the hospital with my Mother. It seemed that one poor sick fellow noticed me, for before many days a note came to my Father from old Uncle Johnnie, one of the nurses, asking that the little girl who had visited the hospital would come again to see poor Chicks, an Indian Half-breed, who lay dying of the fever and asked to see me. My mother and I set out at once and were soon at the dying man's bed-side. The poor fellow stretched out his hand to me and looked wistfully at me, as if he thought in some way I could help him. I shall never forget the look of appeal in his large dark eyes. He held my hand closely clasped in his hand and we stayed with him until near the end when my Mother led me away. Tears were streaming down old Uncle Johnnie's cheeks and my Mother and I were weeping.

After mailing his letter, Harding spent the rest of the 24th making out pay rolls for the regiment's November | payday. The wages of a 4th Wisconsin Volunteer at this time, according to Harding, were “thirteen dollars per Month having been raised since last month two dollars.” Harding wrote his father “that two dollars pr. month are to be kept back until the expiration of our term of service. If that is so some of us will be sure to have some money when we are ready to go home.” Chapter 3

The Eastern Shore Expedition: The Badgers' First Campaign

On Sunday morning, November 3, the regiment was ordered to be ready to march the next day with three days' cooked rations. “The boys set about making preparations with shouts of joy, for they had become tired of staying at the Relay House doing guard duty.” That evening the men listened to speeches from Colonel Paine, Captain Webster Moore, and Company B's Corporal Daniel Maxon. The next day Colonel Paine received the following written orders from Major General Dix:

COLONEL: You will embark this afternoon with your regiment, Captain [Ormand] Nims' company Massachusetts light artillery [2nd Massachusettes Light Battery], and Captain Richards' company [Reading City Guard, Independent Cavalry] of cavalry, with rations for fifteen days, proceed to the Wicomico River, on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, and land at White Haven, in Somerset County, as early as possible on Tuesday morning. You will immediately take up your line of march to Princess Anne … and thence to Snow Hill, in Worcester County, so as to reach there by Tuesday night and encamp. Should it be deemed advisable, on consulting with the principal Union men of Princess Anne and Snow Hill, you will march at the earliest possible hour on Wednesday morning to Newton on the south side of the Pocomoke River … you will have your whole force at Snow Hill on Thursday, and there await my further orders.

The object of the expedition is to give protection to the Union men of Somerset and Worcester Counties, and to prevent the migration or importation of voters from Accomac and Northampton Counties, in Virginia, or elsewhere, with a view to carry the

election of the 6th instant by spurrious votes. A further object is to aid the United States marshal and deputies in putting down any open demonstration of hostility to the Government or resistance to its authority. While you will in every proper mode employ the force under your command in effecting these objects, you will see that loyal and peaceable citizens are not molested or interfered with in any manner whatever. Your force is intended for their protection. You will see that it is not perverted by the misconduct of any one under your command to their annoyance.

The men awoke early Monday, packed their tents, baggage, and haversacks, and bid goodbye to the neighboring inhabitants. With the arrival of the regiment's relief, the 10th Maine Infantry, the men formed into line and boarded the train for Baltimore. The trip was short, but the embarkation of a thousand men and their impedimenta onto the steamer…“

h1.png h2.png h3.png h4.png h5.png h6.png h7.png h8.png h9.png h10.png h11.png

units/4th_wisconsin_primary_sources.txt · Last modified: 2020/02/28 12:44 by admin