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Military Operations at Annapolis Junction, MD, 1861-1865

Timeline of Occupation at Annapolis Junction

Images of Annapolis Junction

[NOTE: National Archives, RG46, item 74, “2 items. Manuscript maps of the camp of instruction at Annapolis Junction and the surrounding area (L101).]

4/24/1861 - “A messenger who arrived late last evening from Annapolis Junction, brings us the intelligence that 100 troops have arrived from Washington, and are stationed at the Junction.” - Daily Exchange, 4/24/1861

4/29/1861 - “A gentleman just from Annapolis junction has arrived here. He reports several regiments of northern troops encamped there, one from New York and another from Rhode Island. They occupy the picnic grounds at the Junction. Fitzsimmons' Junction Hotel was occupied by them as headquarters and an armory…” - Baltimore Sun, 4/29/1861

4/29/1861 - There was a New York regiment at the Annapolis Junction, under Col. Butterfield, numbering, with others, about 1,200.” - Baltimore Sun, 4/29/1861

4/30/1861 - 5/12/1861 - 5th New York State Militia (National Guard) - […to Annapolis, Md., April 30. Guard duty along railroad from Annapolis to Annapolis Junction until May 12.] - CWA

5/1/1861 - “…for Annapolis Junction…The Sixty-ninth New York Regiment was quartered there, but they were to leave for Washington last evening, when two more regiments would arrive from Annapolis, and occupy the place. It has been turned into a regular recruiting depot, and the raw recruits are daily drilled, and exercised in marching and firing on a field adjacent the junction.” - Baltimore Sun, 5/1/1861

5/3/1861 - 71st New York. “…We started again at 10 P. M., and arrived at the Junction at 3 A. M. of Friday, the 26th…Here we were […] away like sardines in a miserable, rickety old wooden building, which had evidently been used as a bowling-alley. We remained here…till about 7 P. M.” - (NY) Evening Post, 5/3/1861

Figure 1: the_new_york_times_fri_may_3_1861

5/4/1861 - “Letter from Annapolis Junction…On my return from Washington yesterday, I was unexpectedly detained at the Annapolis Junction…I found here the 69 regiment of New York..The closing scenes of our evening during our stay consisted of cotillons and jig dances around blazing bon-fires, in which the whole regiment participated…1,400 men…They proceeded on to Washington last night…” - Baltimore Sun, 5/4/1861

5/9/1861 - “In hundreds of places the troops have constructed rough camps in the corners of the crooked fences along the road from Annapolis to the Junction…” - (NY) Evening Post, 5/9/1861

5/11/1861 - “At twelve o'clock, on the eleventh of May, we took up our line of march for Annapolis Junction…We established ten picket posts along the line of the road…the camp will be known as Camp Reynolds…located in an open field, near to and in full view of the railroad.” - The “Ulster Guard” (20th N. Y. State Militia) and the War of the Rebellion … By Theodore Burr Gates

5/13/1861 - “At Annapolis Junction was the advance guard, 400 strong, of the Twentieth (Ulster county) New York regiment, which, on last night, relieved the Fifth New York regiment from duty on the Annapolis road.” - Evening Star, 5/13/1861

5/14/1861 - “The road between Annapolis and the Junction, and thence on either side to Washington and the Relay House, is strongly guarded by the 5th Regiment New-York State troops under command of Col. Schwarzwaelder. The soldiers along the line are now tolerably well protected against inclement weather by tents and rough plank homes. Facing the Junction, on a hill to the north, is a camp of 25 tents, and here sentinels are continually posted…” - New York Tribune, 5/14/1861

5/16/1861 - “An Annapolis Junction everything wears a cheerful aspect. The main body of the twentieth regiment of New York volunteers are still there…Portions of this regiment remain on guard at various points between Annapolis and the Junction…” - Baltimore Sun, 5/16/1861

6/3/1861 - “A few miles further towards Washington is the Annapolis Junction. Here is stationed the Twentieth New York Regiment…Their camp is upon a ten-acre lot, next to, and in full view of the depot. Their cooking department is an adjoining grove.”- Charleston Courier, 6/3/1861

6/16/1861 - “The Massachusetts Sixth and New York Thirteenth Regiments, which were brought to this city on Thursday (election day)…were yesterday sent back to their old quarters. The Massachusetts men were from the Relay House, and the New York Regiment from Annapolis Junction.” - Daily Exchange, 6/15/1861

6/28/1861 - “…the Twentieth New York regiment, stationed at Annapolis Junction…were brought to this city…” - Baltimore Sun, 6/28/1861

7/27/1861 - “The first Pennsylvania regiment of the reserved corps…left yesterday to relieve those stationed at the Annapolis Junction and Annapolis city.” - Baltimore Sun, 7/27/1861

7/31/1861 - “On Monday night the pickets of the Second Pennsylvania Regiment were fired upon at Annapolis Junction.” - Baltimore Sun, 7/31/1861

8/30/1861 - “On the morning of the 30th six companies went on to Annapolis…and four were left to occupy the Junction, picket the Annapolis and Elkridge Railroad…The 21st relieve a poorly drilled Pennsylvania regiment…” - History of the Twenty-first regiment, Massachusetts volunteers, in the war for the preservation of the union, 1861-1865: with statistics of the war and of Rebel prisons.

8/30/1861 - The Twenty-first Massachusetts Regiment, which has been in camp at Patterson's Park since Sunday last, yesterday received orders to repair to Annapolis Junction. The First Pennsylvania reserve, hitherto stationed there, has gone to Washington…“ - Daily Exchange, 8/30/1861

10/1/1861 - “One of our boys was shot last night on guard. He stood about 8 rods from a sessionist house. Three companys have been detailed for guard this morning and have gone out on the Baltimore and Washington R. R. which is in front of our camp. There is a battery on a hill over us.” - Frost, William I. Michigan Civil War Collection, (

10/2/1861 - “On Monday night, a lieutenant of the 21st Massachusetts regiment…stationed at Annapolis Junction, was shot and killed.” - Baltimore Sun, 10/2/1861

10/23/1861 - “Rumors prevailing of a contemplated raid by the rebels…Company A of the Twenty-Seventh Massachusetts reported to Colonel Morse of the Twenty-First Massachusetts Regiment for this duty. The company was divided into three detachments…the first being left about seven miles…a second, five miles…and the remainder at Anderson's Switch, two miles - from Annapolis Junction…The company returned to camp the 13th…” - Bearing arms in the Twenty-Seventh Massachusetts Regiment … Derby, W. P. (William P.)

10/29/1861 - “The four companies on picket duty along the railroad and at Annapolis Junction were relieved by four of the companies at Annapolis.” - History of the Twenty-first regiment, Massachusetts volunteers, in the war for the preservation of the union, 1861-1865: with statistics of the war and of Rebel prisons.

11/5/1861 - “Two companies of the Twenty-first Massachusetts Regiment are at Annapolis Junction.” - Baltimore Sun, 11/5/1861

11/21/1861 - 10th Maine reported at Annapolis Junction, see Sasche image above.

11/22/1861 - ”…from the Annapolis Junction to Bladensburg, the First Michigan regiment…“ - Baltimore Sun, 11/22/1861

11/30/1861 - “The First District of Columbia regiment marched from the city in the morning to the line of the Washington Branch railroad, which they are to assist in guarding between this and Annapolis Junction.” - Baltimore Sun, 11/30/1861

12/7/1861 - “Pvt. Henry Brown, 21st Mass. Vol…There is four companies on picket. They have got log shanties built.” - THE STORY OF PVT. HENRY W. BROWN,THOMPSON, CT. Thompson Historical Society

12/18/1861 - “The four companies of the 21st on picket duty were relieved by a detachment from a Pennsylvania regiment.” - History of the Twenty-first regiment, Massachusetts volunteers, in the war for the preservation of the union, 1861-1865: with statistics of the war and of Rebel prisons.

12/23/1861 - ”…the First Michigan between Beltsville and Annapolis Junction…“ - Baltimore Sun, 12/23/1861

1/29/1862 - “Correspondence of the Star.

Annapolis Junction, Md., Jan. 13.

Bro. Burr:—The readers of our paper are doubtless well informed respecting the more active portions of the army, but our somewhat retired condition, and the monotony of our military duties, render us almost unknown to any except our immediate friends and the officials who direct our proceedings. Col. John C. Robinson, of the 1st Michigan Infantry, is at present in command of this brigade, to which the duty is assigned of guarding the railroad between Baltimore and Washington. There was a time when the transportation of troops by this route to the seat of war was constantly interrupted by the inhabitants, who neglected no opportunity to destroy the bridges and other portions of the track, Now the security enjoyed by soldiers and private citizens in transit is suggestive of the state of our country before the war, when the governmental machinery operated so quietly that we were prone to ignore the efficient cause of our prosperity. And likewise now there are some who judge, by the long period of safety which this railroad has been allowed, that none are disposed to molest it, and that no danger need be apprehended in case of our withdrawal. But the testimony of slaves, who daily enter our lines, and the cold treatment which we receive from the slaveholders, who are detained from open opposition chiefly through fear of being overpowered, are sufficient evidences of the concealed hostility of most of the people in this State. A numerous class of the citizens of Baltimore, according to the Clipper, were highly elated at the prospect of a rupture with England, hoping that such an event would compel the United States to recognize the rebel government, and accept such terms of settlement as might be dictated by the South. It may be true that “Maryland has furnished 7000 men for the Union,” but it is equally true that 7000 of her sons have been enrolled in the Confederate service. Says the Tribune: “The Free States are all loyal. All of the Slave States are rebellious, either wholly or in part. If all the States were free all would be loyal.” This reasoning is not absolutely demonstrative, but the justness of the conclusion is obvious.

The weather here for the last two months has been usually very fine, the temperature mild, and storms of quite unfrequent occurrence. -But the “sunny South” is not so pleasantly exhibited here as it is in South Carolina. The editor of the Camp Kettle, a loyal periodical recently established at Beaufort, while furnishing matter for his paper, enjoys the fragrance of a charming bouquet. The extreme good order and cleanliness enforced in this camp and the excellent management of the medical department, are in- adequate to prevent a large amount of sickness and frequent deaths. These occur mostly from eating extra articles of food sold by the sutler. The regular rations are sufficient in all cases, and when eaten exclusively conduce as much to health and strength as the most wholesome diet at the family table. But most of the soldiers, tempted by appetite and the distance of the day of settlement, throw away their rations, and eat the sutler’s more palatable articles, or these together with their rations; and thus the whole system is deranged. For this, if for no other reason, should the office of sutler be abolished, or the articles he may be allowed to sell prescribed. We have lately removed from cloth tents into comfortable barracks, and it is hoped the health of the men will improve.

The Rev. Mr. Edwards, Chaplain of the Michigan First, is a man of a kind and courteous bearing and gentlemanly deportment, but his religious influence is scarcely discernible. He holds no meetings for prayer and conference, never addresses the soldiers on the occasion of the death of one of their companions, simply performing the usual ceremonies at the grave, and occupies only about twenty minutes in Divine service upon the Sabbath.

This sacred day affords no rest to the soldier, At least this is the case here. The fatiguing exercise of preparing for inspection desecrates the morning of the Lord’s day; this is followed by inspection; then are collected a few who may choose to spend a few moments in the worship of God, when a hymn is sung, a short prayer offered, another hymn sung, after which the Chaplain reads a few verses of Scripture, makes a few lifeless remarks, and closes with singing and prayer; each exercise being as brief as decency will permit. During service the soldiers remain standing. In the afternoon a review, differing slightly from a battalion drill, is ordered, and from this a man cannot be excused by the plea of any religious scruples. The dress parade then closes what the soldiers call “the hardest day in the week.” Under such influences, can it be wondered that the grossest immorality prevails and increases in the camp? The friends of the youth who are being ruined in the army will, I trust, implore the God of nations soon to close this war, if it be consistent with his purpose to liberate the oppressed. J. E. C.”

- Morning Star (Limerick, ME), 3/29/1862

3/13/1862 - “Major Robinson, of the Fifth infantry, who for some time has commanded the railroad brigade at Annapolis Junction, has returned…” - Baltimore Sun, 3/13/1862

5/2/1862 - 60th New York Infantry. [“Cos. A. and G. are at Annapolis Junction, about half way between Baltimore and Washington. Co's, K, C, E and I, are at Camp Preston King near Baltimore, and the remainder of them are at Camp Miles near Relay House.”] - St. Lawrence Plaindealer, 5/2/1862

7/24/1862 - ”…with the hospital which is to be established at the Annapolis Junction…“ - Baltimore Sun, 7/24/1862

9/3/1862 - “A camp of instruction for soldiers has been established at the Annapolis Junction. Numbers of tents have been put up for the accomodation of those under instruction. A New York regiment had arrived on Monday, and more were expected during the night.” - Baltimore Sun, 9/3/1862

9/6/1862 - “There is no camp of instruction at Annapolis Junction further than the 109th New York Regiment of Volunteers is there, with tents pitched, &c, going through the usual exercises for attaining due efficiency. The extensive frame barracks at that point, occupied by troops last winter, have been now appropriated for hospital purposes.” - Baltimore Sun, 9/6/1862

10/24/1862 - “141st New York. Co. G…stationed at Annapolis Junction” - Addison (NY) Advertiser, 11/5/1862

4/24/1863 - ”…the first of which is Annapolis Junction…here are some thirteen hospitals…A short distance from the place last noted to my right, is to be seen on a very fine elevation an Agricultural College…“ - Jamestown Journal, 4/24/1863

7/10/1863 - “ANNAPOLIS MD, July 8, 1863…The hospitals are rapidly filling up. Two hundred and ninety patients arrived at Annapolis Junction Hospital the night before last, among whom were 53 from Pennsylvania Regiments.” - Philadelphia Inquirer, 7/10/1863

7/13/1863 - “The Secretary of War has designated Annapolis Junction as the rendezvous point for persons drafted in Maryland…” - Baltimore Sun, 7/13/1863

1864 - United States Christian Commission “Annapolis Junction.

Dr. C. Bacon, Assistant Surgeon, in charge.

Capacity 290. Patients 240.

Annapolis Junction is about midway between Baltimore and Washington cities, on the Washington Branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. It is about equi-distant, say nineteen miles from each of the cities of Baltimore, Washington and Annapolis. The site occupied by the hospital is passed on the north side by the Annapolis Branch, and on the west side by the Washington Branch of the Railroad. It is very nearly a continuous level, broken only by a slight elevation towards the east. The barracks, wdiich are composed of wood, are arranged in rows with a space around which is used as a drill ground for convalescent patients, who are preparing to return to their regiments. The passages between the buildings, being generally flat, are rendered inconvenient in rainy weather by the thin mud which is peculiar to the soil, of whitish appearance and quite tenacious in its character. We happened to experience the inconvenience of passing the aisles of the camp on the occasion of a visit.

The spiritual services rendered to this hospital are but occasional. It has no Chaplain of its own, and is dependent for Chaplain’s services upon the incumbents of hospitals at and near Annapolis. A number of our delegates have visited the premises, but no very favorable accounts have been given of their services. We had sent books, tracts, and religious newspapers for distribution among the patients, but we have no record to show how they were received, or what benefit was likely to result from their use. We may hope, however, that good seed has been sown, and that by the blessing of God it will bring forth its fruit.

The Acting Quartermaster of the hospital, Geo. McNeal, Esq., operates as a kind of local agent of the Commission in the administration of a portion of our department of the service. He assists us in the distribution of reading matter, and affording necessary facilities to visiting delegates.

The location of the hospital has but little to recommend it. There is a decided disadvantage in its proximity to the Railroad. It affords facilities for the convenience of loungers about the Junction, rvhile delegates and visitors, who might render service in the premises are indisposed to stop while on their way to the camps and hospitals of the adjacent cities. ” - Third Report …by United States Christian Commission. Committee of Maryland

1/25/1864 - “The report…shows the number of patients in the various army hospitals…Annapolis Junction, 33…” - Baltimore Sun, 1/25/1864

Figure 2: phila_sundayschool_times_04021864

5/16/1864 - “COMMANDING OFFICER NINETY-FOURTH NEW YORK VETERAN INFANTRY VOLUNTEERS: You are hereby directed to bring your regiment by railroad to Annapolis Junction without delay, and there await orders from me. Report by letter to me on your arrival at the Junction.” - OR. Vol. XXXVI, Pt II.

5/30/1864 - 144th Ohio State National Guard. “On Friday evening last, 27th inst…we marched from Relay Barracks to the Depot…and in about half an hour arrived here - and at present writing we are encamped in a fine grove of oak, a short distance from the railroad station….only a few rods east of the station are fifteen or twenty one-story wooden buildings erected by the Government, for general hospital purposes.” Perrysburg (OH) Journal, 6/8/1864

7/27/1864 - 144th Ohio State National Guard. “Annapolis Junction, July 16th A. D. 1864…We immediately commenced preparations for the defense of the place, and for this purpose build breastworks on the bank of the Railroad, where it is cut at right angles by the County road, along which the Rebels would pass in their approach to the Junction. We also barricaded the County road, and obtained…a six pound brass field piece…” - Perrysburg (OH) Journal, 7/27/1864

8/10/1864 - “Annapolis Junction (Washington Branch), Company F, One hundred and forty-fourth Ohio State National Guard, 72. ” - O.R.–SERIES I–VOLUME XLIII/1 [S# 90]

9/19/1864 - “Annapolis Junction: Company E, Ninety-third Regiment New York State National Guard, Capt. H. P. Franklin.” - O.R.–SERIES I–VOLUME XLIII/1 [S# 91]

10/20/1864 - “The Ninety-third New York State National Guard have six companies at Elysville and one company at Annapolis Junction.” - O.R.–SERIES I–VOLUME XLIII/1 [S# 91]

8/25/1865 - “The Government will sell in a few days all the buildings, some sixty in number, constituting Rulison General Hospital at Annapolis Junction.” - Alexandria Gazette, 8/25/1865

9/6/1865 - “Col. Luddington on Monday sold twenty-seven frame buildings at Annapolis Junction, comprising those known as Rulison U. S. A. General Hospital…” - Baltimore Sun, 9/6/1865

1865 - United States Christian Commission - “WORK AT CAMP RULISON AND HOSPITAL, Annapolis Junction. The Hospital at Annapolis Junction was established as a mere convenience. It was one of the most exposed, and uncomfortable, and least served of all the Hospitals of our district. Its location at the junction of the Baltimore and Washington, with the Annapolis Railroad, rendered it a conspicuous object, in view of the extensive travel between those cities. While hundreds and thousands were passing the premises in their railway flight every day, but few remained long enough at the Junction to make even the briefest visit to the camp. Dr. C. Bacon, the surgeon, occupied his post until the Hospital was discontinued, and George McNeal, Esq., the Acting Quartermaster, performed to the last the service usually attended to by delegates of the Commission and ladies, in ministering to the temporal necessities of the patients. Chaplain services were rendered, as before, by chaplains and delegates stationed at Annapolis. An occasional visitor from Baltimore or Washington, was to be seen on the premises. No assistance, however, of any account, was secured from such visitors. The patients were removed previous to the 10th of August, 1865, when both camp and Hospital were discontinued.” -Report …, v.4 (1866). United States Christian Commission.

Figure 3: Philadelphia PA Inquirer 9/9/1867
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