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Figure 1: Camp Kelsey, near Annapolis Junction, Md, Sachse (E.) & Co., LC-DIG-pga-08130

Annual Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Maine 1862



George L. Beal, Colonel. James S. Fillebrown, Lieutenant Colonel. Charles Walker, Major.

Company A, Captain Adams, Saco. B, Walker, Portland. C, Jordan, Portland. D West, Fort Kent. E Estes, Portland. F Knowlton, Lewiston. G Beal, Norway. H Emerson, Auburn. O Furbish, Portland. K Nye, Lewiston.

The design in issuing Special Order No. 67 of August thirty-first, (Appendix A) was that the companies which composed the First Regiment, organized with a maximum of seven hundred and eighty one men, and which served at Washington under a three months’ mustering into the United States’ service, but all of whom, in ac- cordance with the act of April twenty-fifth enlisted for two years’ service out of the State, and received the bounty provided therefor, should be filled up to the standard established by the War Depart- ment, and serve out the remainder of their time. This purpose was found to be impracticable to a considerable extent, without the adoption of coercive measures, at, variance with the spirit in which the nine preceding regiments had been brought into almost without an effort. In effecting the organization of this regiment under General Order No. 50, of September twenty-eighth, (Appendix A) companies A, C, and D, of the former regimental organization became disintegrated. Company © was reorganized by the fusion of its own elements with those of companies A and


D, under Lieutenant Jordan as captain. Captain Adams’ company from Saco took the place of company A, and Captain West's from Port Kent that of company D. Of the remaining companies, Lieu tenants Estes, Knowlton, Blake, Furbish and Nye, of companies B, F, G, I and K, were promoted to captaincies. Captain Emerson and both his Lieutenants, Folsom and Dill, of company H, remain- ed in service in the same company, that, with the others named, constituted the First Regiment. At the election of officers for the organization of this regiment, Captain George L. Beal of the G company of the First Regiment (which retained its place and letter in the Tenth) was elected colonel, James S. Fillebrown, adjutant of the First, lieutenant colonel, and Captain Charles Walker of company B of the First, (which also retained its place and letter in the Tenth, under Lieutenant James M. Black, promoted to cap- tain,) was elected major. Lieutenant Colonel Henry Rust, Jr., who served in the First at Washington, was elected to succeed Colonel Beal in the command of company G, but soon after re- signed to accept the lieutenant colonelcy of the Thirteenth Regi- ment, Colonel Dow. Lieutenant Jonathan Blake, who also served in the First at Washington, was elected captain to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Captain Rust. Company D, Cap- tain West, was purely an Aroostook company. Most of the others embodied a small portion of the members of the First Reg- iment, but reference to the rolls, (Appendix D) will alone give the localities which farnished the troops of Colonel Beal’s command.

This regiment left Portland October sixth, and encamped at “Camp Washburn,” Patterson Park, Baltimore, on the ninth. On the fourth of November it moved to the Relay House, on the Bal- timore and Ohio Railroad, and encamped at “Camp Beal.” No- vember thirteenth it moved one mile towards Washington, on the Washington Branch of this road, and on the twenty-seventh of November it returned to Camp Beal, the original location at the Relay House, where it still remains.


South, November 4, 1861

The Tenth Maine Regiment. - Eight companies of the Tenth Maine Regiment (two having gone on the preceding day), under the command of Col. Beale, have taken their departure from Patterson Park for the Relay House, according to orders received from General Dix.


Baltimore Sun, November 5, 1861

Two companies of the Tenth Maine Regiment, stationed at Patterson Park, were on Sunday ordered to the Relay House, on the line of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. Yesterday the remaining eight companies proceeded to the same post, carrying their camp equipment and baggage.


Civil War Letters of Charles Henry Anderson: Private in the Tenth Maine Infantry Regiment

Headquarters, Tenth Maine Regiment, Co. E
Dear Sister,
I seat myself to let you know that my health is first rate and I hope that that these few lines will find you all the same. It is Wednesday morning and I am on guard today. It is a pleasant day I tell you.I wrote to William Anderson yesterday to see if I could not get some letters. I do not get any from home. I wrote one just as soon as I got that one of yours and have not got any answer yet, and this is the last letter that I shall write until I get 3 or 4 more! We are nine miles from Baltimore, 31 miles from Washington to what they call the [Relay House?], to guard the railroad. We do not know how long that we will stay here but I guess all winter.I say it do not seem much like winter here as it was to Maine 2 month ago. Everything is odd to me—I am turned right around.We have not been paid off yet but I guess that we shall be paid off today. That is the talk now, and I am getting hard up to be [paid]. The Captain tells us that it will not be safe to send any money home [illegible] so I shall let him have some of it to keep for me if he will. Anyhow I can manage to take care of it. Tell George there is many boys not so large as he is here, and they are as fat as pigs with a short tail. I go on guard at 11 o’clock and until 1, then goon off until 5; stay on 2 hours, then off 4 hours, then go on once more and that is all. The boys all went a-drilling.Now we get out in the woods to get nuts. Any quantity of Chestnuts here to be got. The growth is not a mite like yours at Maine; I do not know what they call any of it….. Tell Willey to keep my bench for me. Tell Frank that… [Transcription incomplete]

Letter to Maryann Wright, November 8, 1861

Raley House Maryland Novem 8 1861
Dear Wife
I sit down a few moments this eve to write you a few lines to let you know that we are all alive and that is all we can say we left Baltimore last monday for the Raley House 9 miles from Baltimore to gard the railroad it is the most Butiful place I have ever seen in the south some nice farms and good people so far but it is south after all I will give you a discription our jouney the regement left at 8 oclock in the morning leaving me with our bagge Lyman though he must go with the regerment and leave father and be a man so they went out to the camp ground and stayed there all day without any to eat I had all of the victuals with me the officers that had charged of the baggage train went off a whoring and got drunk so we did not get out of Baltimore until sunset then had to go 9 miles on the cars then onload ore baggag lug it on our backs 1/4 of a mile and then get supper after that so much for drunken officers but such is the case you do not know any thing about nor can I tell you one half we have laid on the bare ground without any straw or [?] els but we have got some floors to are camps now but no straw to put in our beds yet our quartermaster has been plaing a disonest game with us so we have not had half enough to eat lately but hope we shall bring him our right by by I tell it is a soldiers life after all Lyman stands it well so far I geuss he was glad to see father when I got out to camp but he wouldnt own it I think we shall stop here this winter but do not know for a cirtainty, we have got deceived with our field officers they do not care no more about there men than they do of bests if they can get bellys full themselves it all they care for but I guess you have had enough of this at present I have bought a picture of our camp ground at Baltimore which is a perfect likeness as can be I shall send it to you the first chance I have you will see by the picture that we come on the right of the regerment our camps are mark H which you can se the square tent is mine where Lyman and I stay I want you get it to held it till we get home but I am tireing you I guess so I will chang Lyman is writing to night give my love to all of the children tell them to remember father and Brother which is far from home tell Arabin I received her letter and was glat to here from her and would gladly have answered if had time but I have to work so hard that am so tiered I ame glad to lay down when it is night and lay there till morning you have no idear how hard I have to work I do not think I can stand it through the winter but shall if I can we expect to be paid of now every day so you must keep lookout at the post office for I shall send out money home but do not know how yet but will let you know soon

Letter of J. E. Mitchell to his Sister Persis

Head-quarters Tenth Maine Regiment, Co. C Relay House Saturday Nov. 9 1861

Dear Sister Persis

I have a few spare moments now which I will improve by scribbling you a few lines to let you know that I am still in the land of the living and hope to continue so for some time. It is raining likes blazes and is about as uncomfortable as it can be. I came of picket guard this morning and got of just in time to save a wetting. We left Baltimore last monday morning for the relay House which is ten miles from Baltimore.

Our business is to guard the RailRoad; We have a guard E extended about nine miles. to look out for the rebils and see that they do trouble track and bridges. It is getting dark now and I have got to wait until morning before I finish

Sunday morning Nov 10th I was sent down to the stone bridge with a guard this morning and have just got back. The left wing of the regimet has just left for Annapolis Junction We shall move up the line about a mile tomorrow. I wrote you a letter when we first arrived in Baltimore and as I have never received an answer I suppose you never recieved it. This is the nineth letter I have wrote and have got onely two and them were about as good as none. I have rathe more privliages than I had before. I was appointed sergeant in company C. they day before we started. I would like to have you look into my tent to day. There is five of us to are writing two sleeping and one sleeping. We have just got our tent fixed up in top top shape with a board floor and banked up all around. it is rather aggrivating to have to move and leave it all behind. I saw David this morning he looks well and healthy and sayes he likes first rate. We have got a first rate Band and it is improving every day I do not know how long we shall stay on this railroad; we may stay all winter; if we do I hope they will build us barracks for it is rather tough sleeping in thin canvas tents these cold nights. One of our men was shot through the hand on picket the other night he said he was fired at twice his gun would not go I shall have to stop now give my respects to Maria and all my acquaintances you may see. Good day Your Humble Servt.

J E Mitchell
P.S. Address Sergt. JEM
Camp Beal
Co. C. 10th Me Regt. Relay House

Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, November 11, 1861

Thanksgiving for our Soldiers.

We learn by a letter from Portland that arrangements are in progress in Portland to send the companies from that city in the 10th Regiment, now at Baltimore, but soon to go to the Relay House, a Thanksgiving dinner, consisting of cooked turkeys, pies, &c., &c. Our Portland friends desire that the citizens of Lewiston and Auburn should unite with them in this work, and send a Thanksgiving dinner to the three companies from our place. The boxes must be forwarded by Monday, to be in season. We hope that our citizens will immediately take hold of this matter, and see to it that our brave soldiers are supplied with a good Thanksgiving dinner. Whatever is done, should be done at once, as the whole work must be completed this week.


Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, November 12, 1861

Letter from 10th Maine Regiment.

Correspondence of The Lewiston Journal. HEAD QUARTERS, PATTERSON PARK, Baltimore, Nov. 2, 1861.

While sitting in my quarters this P. M., and sadly thinking of the probable fate of some of the ships of Gen. Sherman’s expedition, my mind was instantly relieved by our ever welcome Chaplain kindly handing me my mail of letters and papers, and very acceptable, among the number, was a copy of the Journal, the only one I have seen since I left Maine. The Major at once seized it and read the general news, while Adjutant Shaw and some others are contending (slightly) as to who nest shall be the favored ones in looking over its columns; so you see my turn is not yet. Little do our friends at home know of the great treat they often furnish us in a short letter or a news-paper, especially when it comes from home, and favorably reminding us of things of things of which “we ourselves have seen and of which we have been a principal part.” (Pardon the extract, for Baltimore and not Troy is now our home.) In spite of the thousand and one rumors to the contrary, the Maine 10th is still at “Patterson Park,” in the Eastern portion of the “monumental city,” and is in every respect—except our proper fitout—in as good condition and pleasantly situated as we possibly can be.

We are among these beautiful shade trees: which protect us from the hot sun and the strong winds, with the grounds gently sloping to the east, with both hard and soft water in abundance, and our whole ground surrounded by a nice iron fence; thereby, permitting us to protect ourselves from foes without, and to establish good order within.

We are indebted to Gen. Dix for our position, for on our arrival here a telegram was received from Gen. Scott ordering us to Fort Monroe, and certain “eecesh” steamboat Captains were ordered to furnish transportation for us, and to insure our passage. They procured some half-dozen copies of the order, and begun to pass them in from time to time to the officers, but it so happened we “had seen the Elephant,” and, believing the order for us to go to the fort was given from a wrong impression of our position, we at once took a carriage for “Fort McHenry,” and explained to Gen. Dix our situation.

So much for the mystery of our whereabouts. We have been under a strict course of four hours’ daily drill in the manual, but in some ten days after our guns arrived, and now we are on five hours’ drill each day. and the very […] among the men

shows they have great interest in the work. In the manual the men are not so proficient as the 1st Maine, for they have not had one quarter the experience, but in regular maneuvers, they are better than the 1st Maine ever was, and much more particular and perfect. Besides they are so quiet and contented that the officers of the several companies have less trouble to teach their men their duty than before.

To-day is the Sabbath and our services are over, being very brief on account of the storm, which prevented the men from being seated on the ground, And in what strange contrast does our service appear with yours! We have no rich tone of Androscoggin bells to summon us to the house of God; no dear child by our side to while away the walk, no frescoed walls to please the eye, no warm cushioned pew, on which to seat ourselves, but instead the sound of the drum for the “first call” with the Orderlies order “fall in,” and with polished brasses and guns in the soldiers' best style, we join our regiment — Chandler's Band then is prominent, As each nicely finished strain succeeds another, we march in closer column and better spirits, and as each foot meets the ground we as often pledge our hostility to rebellion. Exactly opposite us is Fort McHenry, situated on the point of land which separates the bay from the Patapsco River. Gen. Dix who now in command of the department of Pennsylvania has his headquarters here, and within the inclosure there are two regiments, one of the Regular Army and the Indiana 3d.— The garrison properly under the command of Col. Morris of the Regular Army, who supports the Chapeau, military cloak and whiskers with a good show of grace; and when we refered to the troublesome state of affairs in Baltimore and vicinity he very cooly remarked that he would like no better sport than to burn that little town in one short hour;“ and could you feast your eyes upon the heavy ordnance that would speak in thunder tones at his will, and which is now constantly bearing on “monument square” (the heart of secesh in this city) you would not believe him otherwise than correct. The several prizes brought into this department are anchored under his guns, besides he has possession of the celebrated French Lady, a Captain, who in the guise of ladies apparel seized the steamer from this city to Charleston not long since. We saw his honor in his cell accompanied by his wife. The Sergeants of the guard sat between them to prevent her rendering him any assistance, and to prevent any conversation which might injure our cause.— His eagle eyes mark him as one skilled in low cunning and desperation. He is welcome to all the honor the law will give him.

I wish it were possible to give you a faint idea of the kindness and hospitality with which the Union portion of the good citizens of Baltimore are treating us. They appear very grateful for our presence here, and when one of our members is sick and it comes to their knowledge, they vie with one another as to who shall claim him. One of Capt. Nye's men was sick with the fever, and the good wife of E, A. Abbott asked that he might be cent to her house. The poor fellow has been there now over three weeks, and is improving fast in her kind hands.

Mr. A. is one of “the hundred and fifty thousand kind” and a prominent Union member of the Legislature from this city. It is quite a rarity for an officer not to be invited somewhere to tea and spend the evening, daily, and myself am guilty of having spent five evenings out of camp this very week on just such occasions. Of course the 10th's hand was nearby about 10 o'clock, and always was obliged to come in for refreshments. But it is now eleven. Tattoo has been beat two hours. A messenger from Gen. Dix is announced by the Sergeant of the guard, and we have orders to move on the morrow for the Relay House to guard the Baltimore and Ohio also the Baltimore and Washington R. R., with the celebrated stone bridge over the river, and over which road all troops, supplies and munitions of war now pass that go into Washington, as the Potomac is closed. Rather an important trust I judge this to be, and one which will require a great amount of vigilance and care. But Gen. Mansfeld gave us once the care of Long Bridge, when three other regiments declined to remain, and I hope Gen. Dix will not find us remiss in our duty on the present occasion. We go to relieve the 4th Wisconsin, who were there on our return from Washington last summer. We hope it will not be our lot to remain so long as they have. If so, we are settled for the winter, and our officers will be gentlemen at large.

At a future time I may give you an idea of our mode of life and experiences on guard at the Relay House.


Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, November 13, 1861

From the 10th Maine.

Through the favor of Col. Littlefield of Auburn, we are permitted the perusal of a private letter from Capt. Emerson of the 10th Maine, written at the Relay House. The letter says 60 trains pass the Relay House every 24 hours. The most of the duty detailed to the regiment guard-duty. Five hundred of the men are on special duty. Capt. E. has charge of 140 men in the fort. Capt. Knowlton’s company is at Annapolis Junction, 9 miles from the Relay House. Company B, Capt. Black, is on the B. & O. RR. in another direction. Many of these men are on picket guard. One of the men was fired at on Tuesday (5th), and wounded badly in the hand. Capt. E. states that he is detailed next week to run on the trains between Baltimore and Washington, to pick up stragglers and deserters. The probability is that the Regiment will remain at the Relay House during the winter about 31 miles from Washington and fifteen or twenty from Baltimore and between the two cities. The encampment is described as a fine one, and the men are well contented, and under very good discipline. Capt. E’s. company numbers 93 men, only two men in the hospital, who will probably be on duty in a few days. He says that not single man of his company has yet been the worse for liquor or been placed in the guard-house!—a decidedly exceptional remark. Lieuts. Folsom and Dill were well,as well as himself. Col. Beal is liked very much, Letters to the 10th are directed “10th Maine, Baltimore, (Relay House).”


Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, November 15, 1861

Letter from the 10th Maine.


To the Editor of The Lewiston Journal—

Agreeably to my promise on the night before we left the “Monumental City” in such a hurry, I am seated on a big camp stool, with my writing pad on my knee, hoping to enlighten your many readers and our friends of our safe arrival, of the pleasant situation of our camp, and the nature of the duties required at our hands. “Tattoo” was beat at four Monday morning; “Peas upon a trencher” at five: and we struck our camp at six and left our ground—Patterson Park—at seven, arriving at the Depot at eight.

Gen. Dix insisted as a great necessity that we should be at the Depot at eight, thereby hoping we might arrive at nine; and to expedite our moving he war to send us teams to draw our comp equipage to the cars in season, &c.; but when our time for moving had arrived, no teams were on hand, We marched out of the “Park” with the Major's drum corps (20) cracking loudly in the morning air, and arrived fifteen minutes before the time appointed at the Depot, where we had the honor of again seeing the General, who was patiently awaiting the arrival of the Secretary of State from Washington, and who very warmly thanked us for promptness.

Of course we were obliged to wait for our train to be made up; and after the short ride of eight and one-fourth miles we came in full view of the Wisconsin 4th, whom we relieve, so pleasantly situated on the side of the hill, and among the tall cedars, that we all of one accord shouted for joy, and each one as he pasted involuntarily exclaimed, “On! what a splendid camping ground!” They did not expect us quite so soon,and had not taken up their guard, for it appears to be a settled point in this Department that all military bodies must be behind time. We have not been here long enough yet to learn the fashion and hope it will not be a ruling passion bye and bye.

We find our position here is of great importance to Government in protecting the Railroads and Bridges in this vicinity. Since the Potomac was closed, the transportation of all supplies for the army of the Potomac is over this road, and this massive bridge of stone masonry is the very place that certain “secesh” parties are anxious to undermine with a cask or two of powder, and should they be able to effect their object, the passage of thousands of troops and citizens, besides the daily transit of over five hundred tone of freight, would be stopped. It would surprise you to see the troops that pass here.

It is now the most of six days since our arrival, and over Twelve Thousand soldiers have passed here en route for Washington during the daytime of our stay, Think you Gen. McClellan has sufficient force to protect Wash-

ington yet? Put him down at Three Hundred and Fifty Thousand and you do not underrate his command.

By an order from Gen. Dix we are to guard the road from Annapolis Junction to here, and to throw out Pickets for our protection as to our best judgment. Capt. Knowlton, with his command, is detailed to occupy the nine miles next Annapolis, and the Capt. has taught his men to be sharp and direct in their challenges; and should you present yourself near the line of the road after dark, at a distance of ten paces, you must “Halt” and answer the oft-repeated summons, “Who goes there?” Should you be able to give the countersign or satisfy the Patrol you are a friend, you will be allowed to pass, otherwise the guard tent is your home until the officer in command decides whether you are friend or foe. Capt. Black (of Portland Mechanic Blues) and his command are in charge of the Fort, Stone Bridge and Depot. The Fort is not quite completed, but a working party of one hundred and fifty men is detailed daily under command of Capt. Emerson of Company H., under whose charge it is progressing rapidly. The Captain is now mounting some twelve pound rifled cannon—six in all—to protect his position and command the Junction and each line of the road. He has already the consent of the Ordnance Officer to fire a grand salute at its completion; so look out for “big guns.” Lieut. Turner of Company B., has a detachment of twenty men with him at Ellicott’s Mills, some six miles up on the Ohio road, to examine all contraband goods by teams or otherwise, and to maintain good order, &c. He has had one picket shot while on duty, which begins to show the men that they must be on guard.— The Depot is the principal place where great caution and care is to be used in the detection of deserters, rogues, &c, Every few hours down comes a dispatch from Gen. McClellan, ordering some one on the train to be arrested, and you would laugh and be sometimes vexed to see the arguments presented to elude detection, Deafness, intoxication, citizens’ clothes, foreign dialect, &c., are the means made use of, but if the guard ejects one from the cars, and his citizen's dress is donned for the soldier’s, if he answers the “descriptive list” sent, and you bid him approach, and at the first step out comes the left foot, and on that left foot there should be a government boot, be sure you have the right man.

Some eight or ten are thus taken from the train daily, either as deserters or persons trying to “check it” through. How long our men can endure this amount of work we can only surmise, for I can assure you the draft made on them in large. Were we in proper quarters for the season of the year, had we been furnished with a decently warm blouse instead of the simple flannel at the enormous cost to the our State of $1.38 each, had we even a blanket that was sufficiently large to keep as warm, and if instead of five and one- half it was seven fret long, and of sufficient strength to hold together, which is not the case with some five hundred we now have— had we in some instances more than one under shirt to each man, and also a pair of good socks such as we used to get at home, had we some five hundred pairs of shoes for the ones we have actually worn out since we left Maine on that eventful Sabbath morning in the rain -we then might be expected to “act well our part.” We are happy to know that this deficiency is soon in a measure to be made good, for on earning the condition of our fit-out, our Colonel immediately wrote the proper authorities at Augusta, and was assured that “as the regiment was now in the service of the General Government we should be obliged to look to it for additional supplies.” He has therefore made 2 requisition for coats, blankets, shoes, and socks, and yesterday received the good news that the requisition had been approved, and the order made to have them all forwarded to us at the earliest possible moment.

But here comes an order from Gen. Dix, stating that Col. Robinson of the Michigan 1st is put in command of the Baltimore and Ohio R. R., and that the Maine 10th will be under his command. Col. R. presents his most profound regards in writing, ordering the Maine 10th to place pickets every quarter of mile from the viaduct (Stone Bridge) to Annapolis Junction, a distance of 19 miles.— So Adj, Shaw and myself are ordered to hunt up a new camping ground. We have done so, and reported to Headquarters accordingly, and can now report to you. We have crossed the river some half mile from the Relay, and taken possession of a “secesh” farm and house, with a good barn and out buildings, water &. The house will be used as a hospital and Headquarters, and in my next I will give you an idea of our home on the other side of the Patapsco. S.


Civil War Letters of Charles Henry Anderson: Private in the Tenth Maine Infantry Regiment

CHA 008: Relay House
November 1861
[Fragment, 4.5 in. by 5 in.]
Tell Chas
to take good care of his little girl for me. Oh, if you want to send me a box you will send it to Portland to:G.. K. Daven Exchange St. He is the man that carries the free boxes.Direct [to:]the Relay House, 10 Me. Rgt., Co. E,and it will come.[reverse][sketch of a hand pointing at a head ]four miles to him Tell Will to stop scratching his head. Goodbye, to bed I go. Last night I had to get up I was so cold, and set up to warm me by the stove.

Civil War Letters of Charles Henry Anderson: Private in the Tenth Maine Infantry Regiment

CHA 009: Baltimore
17 November 1861
Headquarters Tenth Maine Regiment, Co. E
Nov the 17 1861
It is Sunday afternoon and the boys are just again on dress parade.
It is just 11 o’clock. I am on guard today. We are not again to have any guard after today, for the Colonel says that we shall go to Washington before long. This “Washington” I said—to Annapolis I mean. That is about 16 miles from here where we do expect to be picked off one by one on guard.We have got a nice little stove, I tell you, and it is not so warm as it might be, I tell you. The folk has just got done getting in their corn here. They husk it in the fall. The Portland folks is going to send us out a thanksgiving, and that will be nice I tell you. We have not settled yet. I am well and like [it ] first rate. This is the place for all such boys as I am.I saw H. Smith in the 11th Regiment.

They passed with[in] 1 rod of the camp on the cars.I am in a hurry. Tell Sarah A Anderson that I have not got any picture yet—no letters neither. Here goes another regiment by; I did not get up to see it for they are very common here, I tell you.Give my love to all of the little ones.

You will please write soon if ever, and direct [it ] to Baltimore,10 Maine Regiment, Co. E.
Charles H Anderson
Limington Maine
Write soon

Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, November, 18 1861

Soldiers’ Thanksgiving.

The success which has followed the efforts of the gentlemen who had in charge the procuring of articles to make up a Thanksgiving Dinner for our four companies of volunteers at the seat of war, has been most gratifying. This morning Lewiston sent nine boxes, one firkin and two kegs, weighing with their contents 1900 lbs., to the Infantry and the Zouaves in the 10th Regiment, at the Relay House, and the Guards in the 5th Regiment near Alexandria; and Auburn six boxes, weighing about 800 lbs., to the Artillery, in the 10th Regiment, The boxes and kegs contained roasted turkeys and chickens, pies and turn-overs, brown-bread, doughnuts, cheese, roasted pork, boiled ham, cranberry sauce, butter, pickles, &c., &¢., in sufficient quantities to give our Lewiston and Auburn soldiers Thanks- giving dinners fora week. These articles have been procured in two days. How the hearts of of our brave volunteers will beat, when they receive this evidence that they are held in fond remembrance at home! Their Thanksgiving in camp, on Thursday, will be one they will never forget. It is also proposed to send a Thanksgiving dinner to the volunteers from Lewiston in the Cavalry Regiment, in camp at Augusta— a suggestion which will be carried out in as successful a manner as our volunteers at the seat of war have been already provided.


Civil War Letters of Charles Henry Anderson: Private in the Tenth Maine Infantry Regiment

CHA 010: Baltimore
20 November 1861
November 20, 1861
Dear Mother,I seat myself to let you know that I am well and hope that these few lines will find you all the same. The boys are all well too. We have not lost any boys yet.One of your boys is sick now—his name is Simpson from Canada. He was a reporter for three papers.We have settled now and was paid off 9 dollars, only they keep back some. We shall get something worth settling for next month, if nothing happens—26 dollars, so they tell me.I have bought me a razor today, for 35 cents—and strap and shears. I went 35 cents, this for cutting hair and shaving. The boys have any quantity of money now, I tell you, but it don’t last long.I sent some pictures to some of you—to all, I mean. I shall not write you again until I get about 6 letters from you. Your

Chs. H Anderson
Limington, Maine
Charles W Anderson
Sarah A Anderson

Oxford Democrat, November 22, 1861

For The Oxford Democrat.

From the Maine Tenth.

MARYLAND, Nov. 9th, 1861.

MR. EDITOR: - Since my last was written we have moved, bag and baggage, about nine miles from Baltimore, and are now encamped near Washington Junction. ON Sunday last we were informed that an order had been received for our removal the next day, and we were commanded to be ready with our knapsacks, haversacks, canteens, et id omne genus, for an early start in the morning. Monday morning, at 4 o'clock, the Reveille was sounded and the camp was soon in commotion. Here is presented an animated scene indeed. Some are carrying forth the straw from the tents, emptying it in heaps upon the ground to be burned; some are packing those numerous et cetera, the use of which is so well known to the soldier; some taking an early breakfast at the kitchen tent, some gathering around the camp fires, or shivering in the cool morning air; some striking the tents; many running about, giving the whole camp an air of indescribable confusion; while through all and above all comes the “eternal and irrepressible: cry of the omnipresent newsboy - “Morning Clipper - another battle!” Soon the straw is fired, and huge volumes of black smoke roll up to the cold gray sky, obscuring the dim light of the faintly struggling stars; while the bright blaze lights up the beautiful grove with its ruddy glare, tinging the leaves as with silver, as they quiver and rustle in the morning breeze.

Immediately the tents are struck and packed; the Sergeants cry, “Fall in, men!” the band strikes up; and off we march, amidst the cheers of the people, “through Baltimore,” thinking all the while what a contrast our march presents to that of the Massachusetts Sixth, on the bloody 19th of April. After some little delay, we take the cars and roll off toward our destination, bidding farewell, for the present, to the city of bricks, mud and monuments.

The scenery on the way is varied, consisting mostly of banks of red sand, green fields, or covered with corn, either standing or in the shock and occasional forests in their autumnal tints and gorgeous hues. After a short ride we arrive at the Junction, disembark, and take up our line of march for the camp of the Wisconsin Fourth. The latter Regiment is about to depart, and we are to occupy their old camping ground. A find Regiment, the Wisconsin Fourth. One of the Maryland girls in the vicinity, we are informed, has signified her devotion to the Union, by taking one of the Wisconsin boys “for better or for worse.” She goes with the Regiment as cook. Surely one Unionist, at least, has succeeded in obtaining “indemnity for the past,” if not “security for the future.”

In a few days our tents were pitched, floored in a substantial manner, and littered (Company G's at least) with soft cedar boughs, and we are not once more enjoying the quiet routine of camp life. Our labor, however, is much more arduous than before, as we have several bridges to guard, day and night, and are engaged in the construction of a small fort, which is to command one of them. It mounts seven guns, and is not almost completed.

Those of your readers having correspondents in the Tenth, are informed that all letters intended for them should still be directed to Baltimore. Truly yours,


Zion's Advocate, November 22, 1861


Near Baltimore, Maine Tenth Regiment Noe. 16, 1861.

Dear Advocate:—It is now seven weeks since this regiment left Portland. It seemed to be an ill omen that it was ordered away in the last hours of a long and dreary rain storm, Sunday morning, as well as an unnecessary breach of the moral law on the part of those in authority. Two other movements have been ordered on the Sabbath, so that the holy day has been almost entirely devoted to secular purposes, This is, in the main, a well behaved regiment, disposed to keep alive their New England consciences and habits. It is not a mark of good statesmanship, or good generalship, to trifle with the conscientious scruple of men, Our men, however, obey all orders promptly, leaving the responsibility where it belongs—on the shoulders of those who issue them.

Our first encampment was at Patterson Park, Baltimore. This was a very pleasant location, and quite home-like. The park is on a hill at the eastern extremity of the city, where the view resembles that had from Munjoy in Portland. Baltimore, with its monuments and steeples, and two hundred and sixty thousand inhabitants spreads out on our right, in front is the harbor thronged with steamers and “Baltimore clippers,” just beyond is Fort McHenry, occupying the extreme point of land; to the right of this corresponding to the hill of Cape Elizabeth—is Federal hill, where, early one morning, during the reign of terror last April, to the surprise of everybody here, Gen. Butler appeared with his battalions, of bristling bayonets. To the left, stretching away to the south-east, are the head waters of the Chesapeake, with its beautiful curvitures and island gems—an approximation to the lovely scenery of Casco bay. On Federal hill, a strong fortification has been erected; its columbaids and howitzers and rifled cannon commanding every part of the city and harbor.

From Patterson's Park, we removed eight miles from Baltimore to the vicinity of the Relay House, of which so much was said last April and May. Here again we had a very fine place for encamping; a high piece of ground sloping gently to the south, overlooking a wide basin of well cultivated land, the summit and northern slope being covered with a fine growth of oak, walnut and cedar. Our men were delighted with this situation, but it became necessary for us to leave last Thursday. We are now encamped on the right bank of the Patapsco, a mile and a half from our last encampment. Our regiment has in charge the railroad from the Relay House to Annapolis Junction, a distance of nine miles. Five companies are constantly out on picket duty. This is accounted among the severest duties of the service. These long, cold, wet nights, make a severe tax on the strength and courage of the men. Thus far they endure it well, though bad colds are common. Our officers are very popular, attending to their duties with great promptness and fidelity; and so general is this the case, that it would be difficult to make invidious distinctions.

Now that the Potomac is closed to navigation by the rebel batteries, the unobstructed use of this railroad is of the highest importance. To secure this, the utmost vigilance is required. Immense trains are passing over the road every hour, with army supplies Troops are still pouring into Washington—hardly less than a thousand per day, ever since we have been in this vicinity. Amid all this accumulation of forces, and immense unheard of preparations for war, it is well for us to keep in mind the words of an ancient, successful, royal warrior: Some trust in horses and some in chariots, but we will remember the name of our God.”

Next week comes Thanksgiving with you in Maine. Many will be missed from their homes on that anniversary. If friends at home are inclined to be sad over this fact, let them rather rejoice and give thanks, that we have so good a government, and that so many of the sons of Maine are ready to stand forth in Its defence, UNION.

P.S. Our nearest Post Office is at “St. Dennis,” at the Relay House Station. But it is best for our friends in writing to the 10th Maine Regiment to direct their letters to “Baltimore,” where we send a mail carrier every evening. By this arrangement we get our letters fifteen hours earlier than we should if directed to “St. Dennis.”


Civil War Letters of Charles Henry Anderson: Private in the Tenth Maine Infantry Regiment

CHA 011: Camp Beal
22 November 1861
C W Anderson of Limington, Maine
Return Address:
Headquarters, Maine 10 Reg’t, Co. E
Camp Beal, 1861
Dear Mother, Baltimore: the I received your letter and was very glad to hear that you all was well, and that you thought that you had got all of my letters I have written to you, and [I] have received two from you. And about that money that is due to me.I do know that I told Father that there was seven dollars and some old cents that Sunday that I was up home. I was there and got 3 dollars of Danell C. and he is owing me 4 dollars and some old cents. This is just as I tell you. And you tell Father that if he goes and asks Danell that he will tell him the same. You wanted me to send you five or 10 and here you have it. I would have sent more if you had asked of me. Tell the boys of the neighborhood that Wilber F Chase was on guard to the curved bridge and he got a-fooling with his gun, and it went off and shot him through the hand. I was on guard about 1/2 mile from him; I heard the report of the gun. They took him to the hospital. I am going out target shooting pretty soon. The officers of your regiment has been cleaning out the rum-shops here, I tell you. They go right into the shops and empty it into the road. They damaged one man 300 dollars worth. The folk shere are getting down on us, I tell you, for this. This is all of the news. Oh, tell Cttey[? ]that I was glad to receive it—it, I said; her Card, I mean. You will please write soon, won’t you.
C H Anderson
Steep Falls
Tell George that I will write just as soon as he writes.

Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, November 23, 1861


We are informed by C. L. Eustis, Esq., that letter has been received from a gentleman who left the 10th Maine at the Relay House on Wednesday (20th), that the soldiers’ Thanksgiving Dinner for the Regiment arrived that day. The men were gratified at these substantial tokens of the regard of friends at home, more than they could express, The boxes arrived in admirable condition. Everything came out as nice as when deposited at home. Even pies and other quite perishable (?)commodities were as perfect specimens of cookery as when first placed in the boxes, We can well imagine that one regiment in the war, at least, has had a Thanksgiving dinner, which will not soon be forgotten.

We have received a beautifully colored lithograph of the late encampment of the Maine 10th at Patterson Park. “Never look a gift horse in the mouth,” is a wise adage, but we wish our friend ha@ sent the gift before the regiment spoilt the reality of the thing by moving to the Relay House.


Cambridge Chronicle, November 11, 1861

CAMP BRASTOW, 7th Co., 10th Maine Vols.,
November 15, 1861

DEAR CHRONICLE: - This Regiment is stationed at Elk Ridge Landing, Maryland. Our company still remains in the position of picket upon the Washington Branch Railroad. We are in good health and continue to improve; our duties are almost entirely that of patrol guards upon the track, watching the track and switches night and day. We have not seen that welcome visitor yet - Uncle Sam's Paymaster. We are almost in our second month, and are anxiously awaiting his usual visit.

I am informed, upon good authority, that there are a number of young men in Ward III (East Cambridge), who would join a good company if they knew their officers; and I am informed that if I will throw up my commission here, a good company, or a strong neuclus for one, will be guaranteed me there, by a party of young men whose names are given. I would inform my friends in Cambridge that should I receive a call to that effect, I will gladly resign my position here under the State of Maine, to take charge of a company from my old native State. I would prefer to go as a Massachusetts Volunteer, by far.

Should the authorities of your city give me authority to raise a company in its limits, I will guarantee to do so in four weeks, and have a full company in that time.

I desire to express my thanks to my friends who flattered me by offering me the command, and should they still persist in it, and if the powers that be will give me the proper papers, I assure them that I will accept. Nothing would please me more highly than to raise a company in my own native city. I hope some such arrangement may be entered into, and that I may be notified to that effect. The right wing of this Regiment left their camp at Relay House and crossed the Patuxenut River yesterday, and camped near our company, at Elk Ridge Landing; I understand they will move again, still further up the road on Monday next, for a more healthy location.

The news from the Naval Expedition caused many a hearty cheer in our camp. A continuous series of blows of that nature will soon teach the South their rights.

We are now attached to Gen. Robinson's Brigade, called the “Railroad Brigade.”

I am awaiting to hear further news from my friends in Cambridge in regard to the new company, and hope they will write soon.

Your valuable paper is a welcome visitor, and is received regularly, for which we return our sincere thanks. I hear of no new movement on foot in this vicinity. The New York Sixtieth Regiment have taken our position near Relay House. A case of poisoning happened in this Regiment a few days since. A boy made his appearance in the camp with cabbages, which the New Yorkers bought. Some of these cabbages were poisoned. The process was this: the centre was scooped out, poison put in, and a wooden plug inserted.

I know of nothing new to write about that would be of interest, and must therefore close, with the hope that something may transpire before my next. All well in health and spirit. I remain yours respectfully,



Letter of J. E. Mitchell to his Sister Persis

Relay House, Nov. 21
My Dear Sister

I reiceved your kind letter last night. I began to think of you the same as you did of me It is a very pleasant morning and I expect the people in maine are having a big thanksgeiving. I rather guess we shall have a big one too If you could see what arrived for our mess of five last night three turkeyes baked in tiptop shape about a bushel of Cakes and pies but to tell you the truth Per's your letter done me more good than all the thanksgiving dinners in the state of maine. We lead a kind of steady life here no news and not much excitement I have been on the sick list for two days. haveing a very bad cold which about 9/10 of the men have. You dident believe I would go again well when I left you I had made up my mind to go and I was positive that I should not see you again but I dident like to say so They are haveing a meeting and while I write the band is playing Old Lang Syne. we have got a splendid band and they improve every day. Your talk about Neal Dows Regt. being so grand and nice. I dont see how that can be beacus the officers from the Colnel to the lance corp. have not a bit of military experience. It will be a good deal like the 5th? Me. which disgraced themselvs and the state at bull run God dliver me from being under green officers. And about the drinking part of it perhaps it will be like the crew that Dow had to work for him in his tan yard it alway had the name of being the worst drinkers in the city but never mind I am satisfide that we are the best officerd regt. from Maine. I would like to have seen your Old Folks kitchen it must have been a big affair about the carnoline there is not one woman out of a hundred wars it out here About your taking so much liberty lectuering me it is something that you always peristed In and I dont know as it is best to get mad now But I tell you Per's if you will onely write, you may lecture me as much as you please and it may do some good. We have just been to dinner a dinner and such. first came the turkey Baked in first rate style with cranberry sauce sweet pottatoes and home made bread and butter. Sardiens then came the plum puddin all it lacked was the sauce Apples peanuts chessnuts walnuts &c. take it all round we had just as good a dinner a anyone would wish If you dont believe we had a turkey I will send you the wish bone which I have just picked. Give my love to Maria I have thought of writing to her two or three times. This is a poor apology for a letter and I will try and do better next time as I do not feel very well after my big dinner I will stop now

From Your Brother

Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, November 27, 1861

The Condition of the 10th.

We should have been pleased to have seen a larger attendance upon the lecture by Mrs. Goddard Tuesday evening upon the condition of the 10th Regiment, Mrs. G. said the hospitals were in bad condition, Eight sick soldiers belonging in Lewiston were so poorly cared for in Baltimore that they were removed to the regimental hospitals. But there many things are needed. The boxes of clothing, &c., sent from here had not reached the regiments from Maine, so they were destitute, Lewiston had done well, but it was her own citizens who needed help. In Portland her mission has been successful. She has already received about $40 in money, besides an abundance of blankets, &, A collection was taken at the close of the lecture, but in, consequence of the slim attendance, the result could not have been very encouraging. We hope our citizens will notice the wants of the 10th. All boxes marked to the 10th at the Relay House, with the specification of the company, will be safely forwarded by Express.


Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, November 27, 1861

Something Must be Done.

That something must be done for our soldiers in the 10th Maine is believed by many who have friends in the regiment. There are several ladies who have comforters, socks, &c., ready to send, and desire that some place of deposit shall be appointed, so that a box may be sent immediately, A lady, who has a son in the regiment, called at our office this morning, and stated that she had received a letter from her son in Capt. Nye’s Company, representing that he was in a suffering condition for socks, &c., and that many others were circumstanced as poorly.— All that is now wanted is some gentleman to take charge of the matter, appoint a place of deposit, and in two days we shall have a large box, of comfortable woolens ready for our suffering soldiers. We shall not doubt that such arrangements will be immediately made, Mothers who have sons, wives who have husbands, and sisters who have brothers suffering for clothing feel that delay in sending comforts is dangerous, and desire that their packages may be forwarded immediately. Good woolens are the only medicine now that will keep our men out of the hospitals.


Oxford Democrat, November 29, 1861

For the Oxford Democrat.

Thanksgiving in Camp.

MARYLAND, Nov. 25th, 1861.

MR. EDITOR: It is now probable that the Maine Tenth will remain in Maryland the ensuing winter, for the purpose of guarding the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, on which we are now stationed. “Camp Beal” is situated about one mile from the Relay House, and ten miles from Baltimore. Most of the companies are at the Regimental Camp, several being stationed at intervals along the railroad. Though we do not have any opportunity here of seeing “grim visaged war,” our duty is a most important one, as troops, stores, and all the materials of war are continually passing through to our army on the Potomac.

“In accordance with venerated usage,” the members of the 10th desired to observe, in a becoming manner, the 21st of November, appointed by our worth Governor as a day of Thanksgiving and Praise. But how to do it was a problem not easily solved. Turkies and chickens were far from abundant; plum pudding not easily attainable; and pumpkin pie, the sine qua non of a New England Thanksgiving, entirely out of the question. While all are ready to admit that it is our duty to be thankful in any event, still the idea of Thanksgiving is always inseparably associated, in a New Englander's mind, with the aforementioned articles; and it is a fast patent to every observer, that chickens, pudding and pie are wonderfully promotive of grateful feelings. Camp fare is not adapted to extraordinary occasions, being fitted to raise emotions of gratitude to a degree only moderately high. What should we do?

The question was at length answered in an entirely unexpected though satisfactory manner. When word came that the boys of the Tenth were to be furnished with a Thanksgiving dinner from home, the news flew from tent to tent, and “Bully!” was the word with the volunteers. For a few days, however, they had to be content with the universal beef, bread and coffee of camp life, vowing, meanwhile, to do tearful execution on the eatables when the good things should arrive from Maine.

At length the 21st dawned, bright and pleasant. The Reveille was beat, the Roll was called, (an unusual number somehow answering to their names) and breakfast despatched. After breakfast, an interesting affair took place, being the presentation to Captain Blake of an elegant sword and belt, by the members of Company G, as a token of their appreciation of his excellent qualities as an officer and a man. The sword was presented by private Kenney in behalf of the Company, and he but expressed their united sentiments when he declared that they were ready to follow whither it should point the way, which he trusted would be often to victory - to defeat, never. He was confident that in such hands it would be “never drawn without cause, nor sheathed without honor;” and closed by presenting it to the Captain, and with it the assurance of the universal esteem and good will of those under his command. Capt. Blake responded in an appropriate and soldierly manner, saying he was taken wholly by surprise, but accepted the sword as an expression of the sympathy which should always exist between commander and command; meaning that the sheen of its bright blade should never be tarnished by any unworthy action while in his possession. The company then broke ranks, with three cheers and a tiger for the Captain. If Company G does not do its whole duty it will not be for the lack of enthusiasm in the men, nor because of inefficiency in the officers.

Towards noon word was passed that the provisions had arrived, when a great rush was made, and the boxes handed round to the eager expectants. They were quickly taken into the tents and emptied of their contents - turkey, chicken, bread, cake, apples, preserves, pie - veritable New England pumpkin pies! - &c., &c., in endless profusion. the fortunate shared with the unfortunate and there was found to be an abundance for all. “Considering all our surroundings, when did we ever have such a Thanksgiving dinner?” asks one. “When shall we have another such?” is responded; and all unite in hoping that their next may be eaten, not in the “tented field,”but at their homes in the good old Dirigo State. So ended the day - literally a day of thanksgiving and praise, and of cheer to the hearts of the soldiers of the Maine Tenth. God bless the women of Maine!

Company G returns to camp this week, its place being supplied by another company, the companies alternating in guard duty. Three of our men are in the Hospital at present - two with the measles, and the third, private Henry Fuller, dangerously sick, so much so that fears are entertained that he will not recover. He has a brother in the company, and is as well cared for as circumstances admit. It is a fact worthy of note that there are no less than seven pairs of brothers in this company.
Respectfully hours,


Civil War Letters of Charles Henry Anderson: Private in the Tenth Maine Infantry Regiment

CHA 012: Relay House
4 December 1861
Co E
Dec the 4, 1861
Dear Sister,
I seat myself to let you know that I am well and hope that these few lines will find you all the same. I was very glad to hear from you, and to hear that you had not forgotten your old kicks—going to the Falls —but was very mad when I came to read what you said about Mary Wood. I can take my oath that I have not written to her for more then 1 year, and more than all that I never want you to mention Mary Wood tome again while I am alive, for I have seen enough of her, that is so!
Your Colonel has just said, before I write, that we shall be down South, so we can smell gunpowder. It is very warm today. I am quite well and [hope] you all are the same.I wrote yesterday to Mother and sent it in Father’s name; it was because I had one backed to him that I wanted to send.

The boys of my tent are all writing this morning. We have some gay old times, I tell you. Your tent is 12 feet across it, and it is round and we have 12 men init. And after we get in bed, we can’t turn over—no more then a wedge can when it is drove into a log. Your barracks is built in this way: 2 stories high, and it looks like a barn. We write downstairs and sleep upstairs—one bunk with 2 men in it and 2 bunks, 1 on the top of the other, and so on.We have three cooks, and I can go into the cook tent and shit 3 piles that will make better cooks than they are, by putting a cap on them. There—I have written you all the news, so goodbye,

H. Anderson of Limington, Maine. They have no towns here. It is all counties and toll bridges or nothing. Give my love to all—and to Will, to be sure. So goodbye,
Chas H

Cambridge MA Chronicle, December 21, 1861

Fort Dix, Relay Station, B.& 0, —

Railroad, Dec. 7, 1861.

DEAR CHRONICLE,—I have neglected to write you, of late, on account of being moved about recently.

Since my last, I have been away from home on a leave of absence for ten days, and visited Boston and Cambridge. Having much to do and many friends to call on, I found no opportunity to call at the Chronicle office, as I had intended.

Upon my return here, I found our company had again changed position and had been drawn into main camp again, the five companies had taken our position upon the railroad, between Relay House and Annapolis Junction. Our Company (D) are placed in the Fort which was thrown up here by Fourth Wisconsin Regiment and finished by the Tenth Maine. We have three rifled cannon mounted and two howitzers, and fire a signal of sundown every evening. Many of our officers have their wives here stopping at Relay House, and we have quite a party of ladies present at our battalion drills and dress parades, We have an officer and a sergeant, detailed every day, to search the trains coming from the Seat of War, for deserters. Quite a number have been arrested and polly-wogged back to Washington and given over to the Provost Marshal, On yesterday's train, Friday, I had the pleasure of meeting Mayor Russell and Mr. Wellington, of your city, passed a pleasant hour or two with them, while being detained by an accident on the road. They were well, and informed me they were about to visit the different regiments in which there were any Cambridge men. I gave them what information I could to aid their efforts. While being detained we were entertained by a company of the Michigan First Regiment, who very hospitably gave us a lunch of beef and bean soup.

The train which was due at Washington, at eleven, A. M., did not arrive until half past three, P.M, The trains are long, and crowded, to an extent which is uncomfortable, with soldiers returning home—some on furlough some discharged, and some with simple passes for leave of absence for twenty-four hours.

Washington thoroughfares are crowded with strangers, officers and their ladies, members of Congress, &c., &c.

I shall give you a description of the Washington Rolling Mills and Ellicott Mills in my next. HATTERAS.


Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, December 5, 1861

—A letter from the 10th Maine says that there are about 50 men in the hospital, many of of them with the measles. Two deaths have occurred in Co. G, Capt. Blake. The weather at the Relay House is pleasant and warm of days, but the nights are chilly.


Civil War Letters of Charles Henry Anderson: Private in the Tenth Maine Infantry Regiment

CHA 013: Camp Beal, Relay House
December 1861
Return address, in part:
Camp Beal,
to the ray (sic)house.
Dear Mother,
Dec the 7,1861 I seat myself to let you know that my health is very good, and I hope that these few lines will find you all the same. The boys are talking very loud about the fights that the northern boys has had this week. The weather is kind of rainy today. Tomorrow your company goes back to headquarters—this is two miles—and then we shall get rid of doing guard duty.But we shall have to come back in 2 weeks onto the railroad. There is 10 companies in the regiment and they have got to guard the road, and so they take turns guarding. Five companies guard it 2 weeks and then other five companies takes it; this is the way we have to work it. Tell Father that I shall send him a paper with this letter—one that I got today, and I will tell you how I got it. When we see the [railroad ] cars coming, take a old paper and swing it; this is the way the boys gets the papers. Swinging the paper puts the passengers in mind of the paper which they are reading and they throw them out, and then you had ought to see the jumping for them. This is the way I got this paper that I send you. Tell Willey that I should like to see him and all of the folks, but I like here better if we did not have nothing but salt pork and dry bread. This we have for two or three days in a week. I hear someone say that they are heaving the bread out like the devil—this means from the track. The bread is brought upon the cars to you, and they throw it off as you would to a passel of hungry dogs. And then who wouldn’t go for a soldier? This is the war. Tell Mother (sic) that I dreamt that she had made me a nice shirt and was going to send it out next week,but when I came to myself it was false, to be sure. Take Notice: The news has just come that General Woolf is going to discharge the third division and let them go home, and pay them their monthly wages up until they found out whether they should want you. This is all of the news, so goodbye. CHA
Write soon. I have got to drill now for the orderly is hollering “Fall in to drill!”

Portland Daily Advertiser, December 5, 1861

Correspondence of the Advertiser.

near Relay House, Nov. 29th, 1861.

Mr. Editor:—Though not a newspaper correspondent by profession or practice, it may perhaps be proper that I should say a word in relation to the present condition and necessities of the men composing the 10th Maine Regiment, for of all those raised in Maine, this is one in which the people In Portland and its immediate vicinity have the greatest interest. It is doubtless well understood by those who have had sufficient interest in the matter to give it their attention, that the hasty departure of the regiment from Portland prevented the reception of many things which though apparently small in themselves, yet if had would go far towards rendering us comfortable when sick, and might contribute to prevent disease. I speak not now of medicines, dressing for wounds, instruments for cutting off limbs or extracting bullets, for all of these there is a sufficiently. But whim we speak of shelter for the sick we plead an entire destitution. One ordinary sized hospital tent was all, and this is barely sufficient to shelter the medicines and stores. True, the cook and steward could mount the boxes—straw tick and blanket in hand—and there rest with a degree of comfort. For of straw ticks we had a plenty, and pillows of the same sort.

On our arrival at Baltimore we immediately made application to Uncle Sam for a supply of tents and also for some form of bedstead. The tent was promised but has not yet been received; the bedsteads were refused because it was said we must send our sick to the General Hospital. We did so. Thirteen in all were sent there, and three of the number yet remain. Several have been removed and taken care of here. Quite a number were invited by the good people to Baltimore (for then are many good people in that city) to make their homes their home when sick. The invitation was in numerous instances accepted and more devoted care, more generous sympathy, more liberal aid unsparing supplies of every want could nowhere be expected, not even at home. — During the month of October not more than twenty-five were so sick as to be laid aside.—This we considered doing remarkably well for men removing from a northern to a southern climate at that season of the year. We came to this place Nov. 4th. We found here a neat, commodious gothic cottage situated in a pleasant grove, which had been occupied by the sick of the Wisconsin 4th, for hospital purposes. We also found a dozen cot beds which our men prize very highly. Fifteen iron bedsteads with sacking bottoms were forwarded by Dr. Garcelon for our Regiment. We stumbled on them in Washington, intending to have them forwarded from there.—Adjutant Shaw sought them while your humble servant at the same hour made inquiries for them in Baltimore. They had been in Baltimore but had started for Annapolis Junction. A telegram or something else caused their arrival here the same afternoon. I mention this to show the uncertainty attending the arrival of any article sent as ordinary freight, at its intended destination. The roads towards Washington are literally overrun with supplies for the army. These make twenty-seven beds. A requisition has been wade and approved for fifty cot beds and blankets to match. Three we shall soon get, and had we sheets and pillows we could make for the sick a very comfortable bed. We have now in hospital 42 patients—twelve cases of measles, two of typhoid fever and one of inflammation of the lungs, besides any quantity of “coughs.” One young man died of lung fever last Sabbath.

I noticed in your issue of the 21st inst. an extract from a private letter which extract though bearing on the very face of it evidence of the writer's ignorance of the matter in band, yet might have the effect to excite undue alarm in the minds of those at home. It said “we are en-camped in a wet place;” which was true because we could not find a better and carry out the orders we received in relation to guard duty. We are, however, out of it now, and hope soon to have barracks. It was said the mud was knee deep, which lacks about twenty inches of being true. Again “a United States surgeon told our doctor we must move from here or half the regiment would be down with fever and ague” &c. Now I am told no U. S. surgeon has been here since we came, and besides our doctor knew all about the place and desired not to have us go, but military orders must be obeyed, and sometimes it is utterly impossible to find a fit location in this region at this season for an encampment. As to fever and ague I am not aware that any case has occurred here except in those that had suffered from the disease before in other places. It is not all in the location of a camp but very much depends on the kind of duty men have to do. Picket duty at night is that which injures men far more than any thing else. Our duty is a very important one as all know, and must be done by somebody. Again, many have entered the volunteer service without any just conception of what they were undertaking. They find they have not the power of endurance—the constitution sufficient to meet the demands. I believe it is the desire and aim of every officer to leave nothing undone that can be done better to prevent disease and to make those who are sick as comfortable as possible. Our Colonel is untiring in his efforts to this end, no less than in every other effort calculated to render his command efficient in their present, and prepare them for any future service or achievements. Col. Beal is highly regarded by all. He possesses qualities of mind and heart admirably adapted to the duties of a commanding officer. Firm, patient, kind, he insists on implicit obedience to orders, bears with the infirmities of the weak of good intentions, and will do everything to aid and encourage the deserving. May his life never become a prey to those who have so wickedly plunged our once happy and united country into so unnatural a strife.

All our officers, we think, are efficient men, and discharge well their duties. In conclusion we may say, that, considering our outfit at the first, we have got on very well. We are soldiers all, and do not expect other than hardship, self denial and suffering. We need, more than anything else, clothing adapted to give men that come into hospital a change to be sick in. Every one knows what these things are, only they must not forget the soldier wears what is called flannel all the year round. Various articles, too, of nourishment are needed. We will write you again.


Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, December 7, 1861

From the Maine 10th.

[Through the politeness of L. Perry, Esq of North Auburn, were furnished with the following extract from a letter from the Maine 10th.)

We had an excellent time Thanksgiving day. Our company (the Auburn Artillery) received large share of good things for the stomach, all furnished by the good people of Auburn and vicinity. Turkeys, chickens, pies, cakes, brown-bread, butter, cheese, &c., &c., were temptingly piled up before us. We had an abundance, while some of the companies, belonging to the Regiment had but very little sent them. Our well spread table gave rise to the most pleasing associations of the Old Pine State, lacking nothing to complete a New England Thanksgiving dinner, but the rustling of “calico.” It was really luxurious feast, made doubly so, from its having been furnished by our Androscroggin friends.The cooking of the fowl, and all the articles sent, was done in the best manner, showing a liberal care for those who have left homes, firesides,and friends, to fight for Union and Liberty. Everything was seasoned just right, baked or boiled. just right, and reflected much credit upon the ladies who officiated in the cooking department. An expression of thanks is richly due the noble hearted donors for giving Company H, such a valuable treat.

Relay House, Nov. 25th 1861.


Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, December 9, 1861

List of Officers and Privates of L. L. I.
RELAY HOUSE, Dec. 2, 1861.
To the Editor of the Lewiston Journal:—

Enclosed I send the names of all the company with the residence of each.

The average age of the men is 23 7-10 years.

The average hight, 5 feet 10 8-10 inches.

There are 44 farmers, 12 shoemakers, 6 teamsters, 4 masons, 3 painters, 3 carpenters, and 21 of miscellaneous trades, So you see we are prepared for any emergency.

Respectfully, yours,


Capt. Co. F, 10th Me. Regt.


Wm. Knowlton. Captain, Lewiston.
E. S. Butler, 1st Lieutenant, “
A. G. Rakin. 2d “
Chas. H. Haskell, 1st Sergeant, Pownal.
I. S. Stevens, 2d ” Yarmouth.
Samuel E. Cushing, 3d ” Pownal.
Jos. S. Merril, 4th ” Readfield.
Hardy N. Baker, 5th “ Lewiston.
Alfred Roberts, Corporal, Durham.
Samuel W. Lovell,” Yarmouth.
Frank J. Savage, “ Anson.
H. B. Winter, ” Dixfeld.
James Low. “ Lewiston.
George H Gould “
Reuben D. Pratt, Mercer.
Chas, W. Heeny, Lewiston.

Wm. W. Sewell, Drummer, Portland.
I. K. Knowlton, Wagoner, Lewiston.
Atkinson, Chas. A. Mercer.
Burke, Wiliam Lewiston.
Buck, John A. Greenwood.
Beal, Thos. R. . Durham.
Beal, Johnathan Anson.
Burr, Chas. F. Pownal.
Corell, James B. Durham.
Cleveland, Benj. F.
Cole, Consider Greenwood.
Dwelley, Geo. A. Lewiston.
Dockram, G. A. Poland.
Daggett, O. W. Anson.
Davis, Isaac P. Auburn.
Davis, Lorenzo T. Carmel.
Eastman, Thos. A. Lewiston.
Elliot, Edward F. Rumford.
Eames, Martin Embden.
Ellsworth, Isaac Salem.
Fitzgerald, Daniel Lewiston.
Foster, Nicholas L. “
Frost, Isaac C. Weld.
Gage, Geo, W. Lewiston.
Gray, Wesley. Embden.
Grant, Amazia Durham.
Grant, Samuel R. “
Gordon, John H. Mt. Vernon.
Hodston, Samuel R. Milton.
Howard, Fred A. Anson.
Hutchinson, B. F. Rockland.
Hall, Daniel E. Naples
Hall, E. L. Lewiston.
Jewell, Levi D. Bryant's Pond.
Jackson, Andrew Lewiston.
Jones. Henry H, Yarmouth.
Jordan, Henry F. Andover.
Johnson, G. W. Freeport.
Kincaid, John A. Lewiston.
Knights, F. G. Pownal.
Knights, Abel J. Kennebunkport.
Kennison, Chas. H. Lewiston.
Lane, Sullivan, Anson.
Libby, Lewis F. Pownal.
Libby, Elijah Greenwood.
Lovejoy, Chas. Saco.
Lapham, Jos, Rumford.
Morse, Jos. W. Andover.
Marston, Chas. Lewiston.
McGlinchy, H. “
O'Neil, Leanty Portland.
Nichols, A. E. Lewiston.
Prindall, Wm, Brunswick.
Pullen, Omar Anson.
Pyer, Wm. A. Lewiston.
Plummer, A. Bridgton.
Pearson Wm H. Lock's Mills.
Pearson, Lewis E. Portland.
Pote, Isaac I. “
Stirk, Henry, Turner.
Smith, Kennedy Salem.
Stevens, E. H. Auburn.
Sidney, Phillip Portland.
Sawyer, Jos. W. Pownal
Smellage, G. W. Portland.
Thing, Everard Mt. Vernon.
Triff, H. A. Sedgewick.
Tuttle, Albion Pownal.
Townsend, J. W. Auburn.
Thompson, A. J. Farmington.
Records, Edwin Turner.
Robbins, Samuel Anson.
West, Lewis F. Pownal.
Williams, Chas. B. Mt. Vernon.
Welsh, Benj. A. Minot.
Walker, Fred. L. Woolwich.
Whitney, J. H, Chesterville.
Young, E. K. Yarmoath.


Portland Daily Advertiser, December 9, 1861

TENTH REGIMENT — A letter from an officer of the 10th Regiment, says:—”I think our hospital with what we now have and what is coming, will put us in good shape. The measles are assuming rather a bad form; three deaths have already taken place, and I am afraid we shall have more, unless it takes a different form. The doctors pronounce it the black measles. We have now about fifty sick; and you can see the change already made in the comfort of the men by the timely arrival of comforts from our friends at home. I shall send receipts for every thing that is received, and all monies go through a committee, and the Treasurer keeps debt and credit, so we can show at any time what becomes of the money.”


Portland Daily Advertiser, December 14, 1861

The friends of the Tenth Regiment will be interested in the following extracts from a letter from Mrs. Goddard to the Treasurer of the Ladies Committee:

Dear Madame: Since my return, my time has been so constantly occupied, it has been impossible for me to find leisure to thank you for your kind operation in procuring hospital supplies when I was in Portland. Could you see our improved condition you would feel amply compensated. Every one remarks, “You seem to be getting into a much more comfortable condition” - and indeed we are.

We had fifty-two in the hospital the first of the week - and for all these we have had to wash and iron - so you may judge we had something to do. We have lost two men this week; one was taken away this (Sunday) afternoon, to Otisfield, Me.

We have several cases of measles of the malignant type, yet we hope to lose no more. It is pitiful to see the poor fellows dying off - away from friends and home. The one who died last night, bid me good bye with the composure of a Christian. He longed to be at rest - and knew in whom he had believed. He was a soldier of Christ - long before he enlisted in the service of the government - so he readily obeyed the command to “go up higher.” His death, was a triumph of faith, and the effect upon his comrades in the hospital is wonderful. We see opportunity daily to do good, and I trust we shall not fail to embrace the opportunities.


Civil War Letters of Charles Henry Anderson: Private in the Tenth Maine Infantry Regiment

CHA 014: Baltimore
17 December 1861
Adressee: Charles W. Anderson

Dear Father,
Baltimore Dec the .17. /61
I take my pen in hand to let you know that I am well and hope that these few lines will find you all the same. The boys and Captains is building barracks;they will have them done shortly. It is very pleasan there now, I tell you. It is just like summer here and the boys like it first rate, I tell you. The folks here think that our Northern troops will have England to contend with, and if we do it will go hard with us. So the folks think, and so it may.We have all the News that is going, I tell you. We get the news from Washington. I suppose that you are posted in what is going on. I want you to write some news the next time that you write. Take notice Five of your companies is with [the] railroad. They have 9 miles to guard; they stay there two weeks and then the other five companies take the road. This is the main road from Baltimore to Washington—every regiment that goes South, and all the provisions that keeps the armies alive, for it can’t go any other way. There is 3 regiments on this road from Baltimore to Wash. It is 43 miles.
We live like dukes to what the folks does here, I tell you. For they come and beg the pieces of bread that we have left after we are done eating. That is the way with the South—the poor is poor, and they are plenty too, I tell you. There, I must draw to a close for I am in the Captain’s tent and it is almost supper time too. I will send this under the care of Sarah A Anderson for she give me warning of that sheet of paper that you sent me. They have just fired the evening gun over to the fort.

This fort is about 1/2 mile from us. This gun is fired at sunrise and set.So now good by,C C C CChas H Anderson

Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, December 19, 1861

From the 10th Maine.

A private letter from Stephen R. Estes of Co.H, (Auburn Artillery) 10th Maine informs us that this company “has returned to head quarters at the Relay House, having been out two weeks on picket service. The company will rest two weeks, and then return to the same service. The duty required of us is very responsible, and the position held by the 10th Maine Regiment is called a post of honor. Several regiments have occupied the same position, and have not given the Government satisfaction, and have been ordered away. Our regiment has 9 miles of Rail Road to guard, our company having 1 1-2 miles in which is the Great Stone Bridge across the Patapsco River, which has eight spans each 40 feet, and cost over half a million dollars. It is a splendid structure and all important to our Government, as all troops and supplies have to pass over this railroad on account of the rebel blockade on the Potomac, We have built a small fort here which is called Fort Dix (named for Gen. John L. Dix) mounting six rifled cannon and capable of defending against one or two thousand Infantry. If is on an eminence about three hundred yards west from the entire settlement, both sides of the river. Exactly opposite on the other side of river is the mill where Ben Butler planted two pieces of cannon, when her first took possession of the Relay territory. But things present a different aspect now from what they did at that time, Maryland is now on the side of the Union. Yet there are a great many traitors, even here in this vicinity, but they are obliged to keep quiet.

The health of the regiment is improving. — Complaints are made that the surgeon either does not know, or does not do his duty. If any of the men are sick, of which there is a number, they get board and attention at private houses, and other physicians to attend them. Some who have been out of camp as above, have returned to camp enjoying comparative health. The lumber has arrived from Baltimore to build our barracks, which will be appreciated by all the regiment.

An engine exploded on this railroad night before last, and killed the engineer and fireman and wounded one captain. The train had on board the 64th New York regiment. It burst at half past ten o’clock, B. M., one and one-half miles from where I was on guard on the railroad. A regiment is just passing over the railroad as I write.”


Civil War Letters of Charles Henry Anderson: Private in the Tenth Maine Infantry Regiment

CHA 015: Baltimore
20 December 1861
Dear Mother,
December 20, 1861
I received your letter last night and two more with them, and I have received everything that you have sent me. Tell Willie that I got his lock of hair and I almost thought that it was him when I saw the net on it. Tell him that he must not be mad with me, and to keep my bed for me. (Turn over! You, I mean, not the paper.) You wrote that Father wanted me to let him know whether we was on the right or left; we are on the right; or, there is 1 company on the right before us. The companies is racing on the barracks [to finish them?]. Company C is ahead of us and that is all,today. It is very warm here today. It will take 2 or 3 days longer. You wanted me to write whether I had been home sick—that I can do. I have not and, more than all of that, I shall never be while I am on this shore. I had a letter from James Anderson and E. Wood and you, one night—that was last night too. Your Lieutenant has just come in here and he makes me think of Father every time I see him; he is a nice man. I tell you it is pleasant here. You wanted me to write what had became of C.Higgins and ‘Bijah. Well, I will tell you. C. Higgins has been sick now about 2 weeks with the measles; ‘Bijah is well and likes [it ] first rate. It is the black measles that C. Higgins has got; he is getting well now. W. F. Chase is coming home with his hand soon.

We live first rate here I tell you; if you could see the beef that they haul here it would make your eyes stick out. I guess that I shall hire a team Sunday and come down home. I can get home in 2 days and a night It would cost me 12 dollars. The folks think here that we shall have trouble with other nations before it is settled. Tell Sarah that I got her letter and have answered it,too—and a slip for Sarah Ann [?]. Tell George that he had ought to hear the men drive their old mules—har!—gee! —long! [?]—they are right smart, I tell you. I like to read your letters, for you write so plain.So now goodbye,C H Anderson
Write soon. I do not have to wait until Sunday before I can write.Write what has become of the colt. This is all backed, so I will send it in Father’s name.

Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, December 31, 1861

From Capt. Nye’s Co., Maine 10th.

We are gratified to learn of the safe arrival of the box of clothing and other articles recently forwarded from Mr. T. B. Thompson’s store to Capt. Nye’s company. Everything arrived in good order, and Capt. Nye would assure those in Lewiston who sent packages, that he has carefully attended to their distribution, and that the nick-nacks are now all in the hands of those for whom they were intended. A private letter from Capt. Nye to Mr. A. J. Cole, foreman of the cloth room in the Porter Mill, to whose self-sacrificing efforts in behalf of our soldiers, not too mach praise can be awarded,—says that we here cannot well understand the gratification and thankfulness the men experience at these practical assurances that they are not forgotten at home, The box just forwarded to Capt. Nye’s company came at a fortunate time. Capt. N. writes that many of the men were stocking-less, and that he had exhausted his own stock in supplying the needy. In behalf of the company he tenders his warmest thanks to the kind friends of the company in Lewiston for their many favors. The books and newspapers, of which a generous supply was forwarded, came at a happy time, and furnish a happy means of passing leisure hours. The local papers, Capt. N. states were received and read with much interest. The company are preparing barracks, and are circumstanced as well as could be desired. We are requested to state that another box will be sent from Mr. Thompson’s store as soon as sufficient deposits are made to warrant it. Mr. Thompson and Mr. Cole will take charge of the packing and transmission, which is sufficient surety that the packages will be plainly marked and as consequence reach those for whom they were intended. It might be added that the expressage on the box last forwarded was about six dollars. This expense alloted among the owners of the score or more of packages forwarded, evidently brings the expense of transmission to a very trivial item. The boys would gladly pay thrice the amount to obtain the welcome comforts, which speak so gratifyingly of the homes they have left, Persons who desire to send further articles to friends in the 10th, will accordingly be assured that they cannot well fail of reaching their destination, and that too at slight cost, and eminent pleasure, to those to whom they are sent. We doubt not another box will be heaped with rich comforts. We shall be happy to add to it such items in the line of newspapers, as we have.


Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, December 31, 1861

Capt. Stockbridge of Auburn, who has just returned from Washington, visited the camp of 10th Maine on his way. He found the boys delighted with their quarters and contented. Apart from the dear ones they have left at home, he believes they are supplied with every desirable comfort. The men appear as comfortable in their quarters as before the kitchen fire in New England.


Janesville Daily Gazette, December 31, 1861

…The 1st District of Columbia regiment is posted between Washington and Beltsville, the 1st Michigan between Beltsville and Annapolis Junction, the 10th Maine between Annapolis Junction and the Western Junction at Relay, and the 60th New York from the Relay to the Locust Point and other stations of the road to Baltimore….


Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, January 2, 1861

From Co. F, (L. L. I.) Maine 10th.

To the Editor of the Lewiston Journal — HEAD QUARTERS CO. F, ANNAPOLIS JUNCTION, MD., Dec. 28th, 1861.

We have understood with regret that our friends at home have got the impression that we are all either naked or starving, and that we are on the whole in a pitable and suffering condition. Now this is all untrue. We have to eat, drink and wear all that we could wish, and the quality is excellent. We have very nice fresh and corned beef, good sweet pork, beans, hominy, molasses, rice, tea, coffee and sugar. Our bread cannot be beat even at home, and we save our rations to the amount of two dollars per month, which we get in money each month, which is enough to buy cabbage, turnips, potatoes and any thing of the kind that we do not draw. beside paying our cook. If there is any one thing more than another that our men are noted for or which comes most natural to them, it is to make the best of everything. If we get a meal that is a little objectionable occasionally they imagine it is good, and eat the more of it, and thereby make themselves contented and happy. We have been at work all day building us a winter habitation, and our supper consisted of hominy and molasses—you should have seen the zest with which we eat. It took about five large kettles’ full and three gallons of molasses to go the rounds and many of them declared it tasted as well as any thing of the kind they ever eat. I never wish to see happier set of men than ours appear to be. To-night the boys are all in their tents, gathered around their little camp stoves engaged in singing. Every thing goes on pleasantly. Our winter quarters consist of one building 22 feet wide, 10 feet high, and 90 feet long.

We are about nine miles from the head quarters of the Regiment, and about 100 rods from Annapolis Junction. Our present encampment is located in a beautiful grove, near the track of the Baltimore and Washington Railroad, which we are guarding. We detail twenty four men every 24 hours for that purpose, each one standing eight hours out of the 24. Yesterday we had a very pleasant time. Our worthy Chaplain made us a visit and took dinner, after which we called the company together, had some fine singing, when the Chaplain gave us a few encouraging words and advice, and closed with an appropriate and touching prayer. We have become acquainted with some of the people living in the vicinity, the most of whom are slaveholders, on a small scale, generally having from one to twenty “head” as they call them, Many slaves reckon themselves like so many sheep or cattle, while many others appear intelligent and can read and write. The most of their masters appear to lean toward Dixie, although they are very kind to us.

We expect to remain here this winter, although we hope we shall get an order to go father South where we can get a shot at Secesh. This is the only thing we are dissatisfied with. Yours Truly, R. Co. F.


Letter from Lyman Wright to Maryanne Wright, January 2, 1862

Raeley House Jan 2, 62
Dear mother i received your letter last night with pleasure i was glad to here from you it is long time since i have heard from you we are going to move ofver to the forte where Co D is the men are lousy we moved in the barns this morning it is very cold out here we are learning to load the [?] is that we shal go in a experdision down south with the rebels if we do we will make them trot i would I nat some home for five dollars i would like to see you all i thought that i should have to come home but i gess i shal not we had a grand reveue here yesterday we had the best and the [?] guns in the hole rigerment C H is the best co in the hole regerment i would like to have old englend pick in they yould get enough of it there was a great fit out in verginia yesterday the rebels wer routed we have some fun out here there is more nigers then would fill Auburn i gess if they was all free you would get sick of them tell Charley that our dog is fater then ever he maybe 100 pounds he is a big felow we are going to bring him home with us i can not think of eny more to write now so good by from your sone Lyman Wright

Letter from Horace Wright to Maryanne Wright, January 2, 1862

Relay House Baltimore Jan 3d 1862
Dear Wife
I sit down this morning to write you a few lines in answer to your kind letter that I received day before yesterday. I should have answered it yesterday but I wanted to here from George Parker [?Burker]. I went to Baltimore to see him and to see how he was geting along. I found him very sick and going in consumption as fast as time can cary him how he is tells him he has the best of care has every thing that a man can ask for to make him comfortable as far as that is concerned but he is amoungst all strangers tell him we are going to gry to get him home as soon as he is able if he is every able and for him to write to me as soon as he can wether he wants him to come to Lewiston or to Westbrook and if he should be taken away we shall send him home if his friends requests it and I think they will and where they want him sent to Lewiston Durham or Westbrook and if there is anything he wants to comunicate to George to not be afraid to write to me and I will attend to it with pleasure be as expeditous as possible wont you. Ihave not an news of any account to write to you at this time we are all wel l and when these few lines reaches you I hope they will find you all the same. Lyman is as hearty as ever he is writing to you to day tell the children all howdo for father and Lyman tell them to be sure to remember father and Brother till they get home you wanted me to write you how long the soldiers wer bound to stay so you could make some calcuation when you could expect us home we are bound to stay in the service till one year from the third day of next may if not discharged before but I think the war news looks more favarable now than it ever has to me I think we shall get home next summer. I expect to be at home if I live next fourth of July and I think the rest of them will but do not know what may turn up yet I think we shall stay here this winter without any dought for all of the officers allmost and some of the privates have got there women here and are having such a good time they will hate to leave. I expect our officers will be for getting there women here soon with the rest of them but hope not I like women as well as any body in there place but it is no place for a woman amoungst a regerment of soldiers perhaps I think as much of my Wife as any of them does and I would not have her out here if any body would pay her fare out here and back for nothing women are but laughing stocks for the soldiers one of the Lowny officers sent for his girl to come out here and she come and they wer married and she is flouncing arround here for the soldiers to make fun of but my paper is getting short so I must close tell Arabine I received her letter and will answer it as soon as I possible can for I want to know about matters and things in general so good by kiss the babys for me yours in hast from your affeconate Husband
Maryann Wright
Horase Wright

Civil War Letters of Charles Henry Anderson: Private in the Tenth Maine Infantry Regiment

CHA 017: Baltimore
7 January 1862
January the 7 /62
My Dear Father,
It is now near bedtime and I lay in my bunk and have just been up to the Chaplain’s office and mailed 6 papers for all the neighbors. And I have mailed a letter to you with 6 dollars in it, and one to Mother with $10 in it, and I want you to write and let me know whether you get them or not. And I wrote that I should send stamps and forgot it, but send them in this. The letters has just come and I shall go and see if I have one.I have been and seen, but I had none, so I will finish.I shall send you $100 more in this letter, and then if I get out I shall send home for some, and want you to send it to me. I full well know that this money comes easy and will go easy if I keep it here, for this is the worst place to spend money that ever I got into. And therefore I shall send it home and let you have it.‘Bijah Abbott has just come along and says that he is a good [illegible]; write him again. I sent a paper to Watson [illegible] and C. Warren of the Clipper.
Write soon. Yours truly,C H Anderson of Limington Maine
Give Will this 5 cents in this letter, and tell him to keep my bed.

Civil War Letters of Charles Henry Anderson: Private in the Tenth Maine Infantry Regiment

CHA 016: Baltimore 7 January 1862
January the 7, 1862
My Dear Mother,
I seat myself to let you know that my health is good and hope that these few lines will find you all the same. I received your letter last night and was glad to hear that you all was well. It is quite cold here—we have 2 inches of snow. I am in the Chaplain’s office and cannot stop to write much. Tell the old man that I am glad that he has got something to do.I have sent 10 dollars [in] a letter to him and shall send six in this: 5 for you, 1 for Sarah A Anderson.
It is about 8 o’clock in the morning now and the sunshines beautiful, I tell you. Tell Sarah that she must not dance too hard [illegible]. Tell Wille that I will send him something one of these days.So, goodbye,C H Anderson[ page 3 of the same document, CHA 016]
Dear Sister, To you these lines I do direct for knowing the truth that your ships were not wrecked (this is a byword with the boys). I have sent Father $10 and sent 5 more to Mother and 1 to you, making 16 in all. This money you may do what you please with. This is from your Brother,Chas H Anderson

Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, January 10, 1862

Death of Ezra R. Randall, Co D, Me. 10th.

We are pained to chronicle the death of Sergeant Ezra R. Randall, brother of James Randall of Lewiston, 2 member of Capt. West's (Aroostook) Co., 10th Maine. The body of the deceased was forwarded to his friends in this place, and arrived on Thursday. The following extracts from a private letter will give their own explanation:—

Relay House, MD. Jan. 5th, 1862.

MR. JAMES RANDALL:—I am under the painful necessity of informing you of the death of your brother, Seargeant Ezra Randall of my company. He died this morning at ten minutes before eight o'clock, His sickness lasted only three days. He was taken last Wednesday night with violent pains in his stomach, and continued to grow worse until yesterday morning, when he appeared more comfortable and continued apparently so, until his death. He had the best of care. Dr. Perry, our regimental surgeon, expressed the belief when he first saw him, that he had been poisoned, but on Mr. R, saying that he had eaten nothing that could have contained poison, no farther thought was had of the matter at that time.

This morning, however, I instituted a post mortem examination, which showed that his death was caused by POISON-ARSENIC. I have ascertained that he with two others bought a pie, each, the evening he was taken sick, which might have contained the poison. We shall have a thorough investigation made of the matter — Sergeant Randall, with whom I have been acquainted for several years, was a young man of exemplary conduct, and esteemed by all who knew him, and his loss is keenly felt by his comrade. Allow me to extend to yourself and his friends, the heartfelt sympathies of myself and officers.

Respectfully yours, Capt. GEO. W. WEST, Tenth Maine,


Chronicle, January 11, 1862


This regiment have completed their barracks, and are now comfortably quartered for the winter. We are in hopes of receiving orders to join some of the expeditions now fitting out. There is rumor afloat that we are booked for Burnside's, at Annapolis, I hope we may join some of them.

Guard duty on the railroad still continues dull; nothing happens to enliven the life we lead here.

We are now busy making out our pay rolls, preparatory to being paid off; We expect a visit from Major Robie of the Pay Department about January 5th, 1862. He will be welcome.

I notice in the last Chronicle received, several letters from your correspondent of the Twenty-Second Massachusetts Regiment, at Hall's Hill, Va. (F. N. S.) I am aware of his talents as a punster, but think his last effort inferior. He speaks of “something Brewing,” and gets off a pun thus: “We can bear it” now. I think something must ale him if anything was “Brewing”, but knowing his strict temperance principles, I can't imagine what could ail him.

I am sorry that nothing interferes with our dull duties here, wherewith to make an interesting letter. I promised you a description of Washington Rolling Mills, and also of Ellicott Cotton Mills, but I have not been able to visit them yet, but will do so as soon as I can without interfering with my duties.

I intend to visit Annapolis the coming week, and see the several Massachusetts regiments in camp there, belonging to the Burnside's division, and will give you an account of the condition, &c.on my return.

The Tenth Maine regiment are in good condition, and in a good state of health, I hear they have “high old” times on the other side of the Potomac and at Annapolis, as regards rations, etc. I don't believe it, for never was an army better clothed and better fed than the present army of the federal government.

At Annapolis, one fellow (a Connecticut boy) complains that “they have been fed on mule meat so long that their ears have become elongated some inches or more, and another (a Massachusetts boy) writes of the army inspector that in inspecting fly barrels of hard bread, forty-six were rejected, and the boys upon examining them, found some marked A.D. 1810, and some were stamped B. C. I leave your readers to conjecture what B. C. stands for. I can’t imagine myself whence they came unless they were saved from Noah's ark.

I hope to hear from F. N. S.” often. His writings are generally spicy and interesting, as he has a position and opportunities to avail himself of accidents and incidents.

Nothing occurs here to mar the monotony, and I close for want of items.

Yours respectfully, “HATTERAS.”


Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, January 13, 1862

From the Maine 10th.

[We make the following extracts from a private letter, through the favor of Mr. T. W. Lord, of Auburn—ED.]

CAMP BEAL, 10th Me. Reg., Co. K, Relay House, Maryland.

The Maine 10th can still be found at their post near the Relay House in Maryland, with a substantial guard thrown around their encampment, and the Railroad carefully guarded by one half of the regiment, from the Relay House Station to Annapolis Junction, a distance of nine miles. One company (Capt. West's) is in command of the new fort which the Wisconsin 4th commenced and we completed, and protects the Long Stone Bridge, or Thomas’ Viaduct, across the Patapsco river, near the Relay House. The Relay House Station has to be guarded by five companies remaining in camp, and also a covered toll bridge across the same river, on the Turnpike from Baltimore to Washington. There have been 300 teams, drawn by six mules each, placed on this road to carry supplies for the army from Baltimore to Washington. When you reflect that all the supplies of the army have to be transported over these two roads, and also that until yesterday the Railroad did it all, you can see the importance of having it faithfully protected. Three corporals, with six men, are put on guard at the Depot every day, and have to stand twenty-four hours. They are, however, divided into three reliefs, so that only one corporal and two men stand at a time, and are relieved every four hours. They serve at this duty twice during the twenty-four hours, making eight for each man. The duty of the men is to keep loafers away from the Depot, and the corporal has to examine the trains from Washington, and take what deserters he finds about them.

A sergeant and men are also sent here for a patrol guard. They keep the boys away from the liquor shops; and the sergeant assists the corporal in examining the cars. These are not on daring the night, Two men and two corporals are sent to the covered bridge—a man and a corporal being detailed at a time,—who are relieved every six hours. Their duty is to examine every team, and see if they have aboard any contraband goods. If they have, they are taken prisoners of course, and sent to the camp.


Civil War Letters of Charles Henry Anderson: Private in the Tenth Maine Infantry Regiment

CHA 018: Baltimore
17 January 1862
Baltimore Jan. the 17 /62[No addressee is named.]
It is Friday afternoon and I have just come off from guard. I received your letter last night and was very glad to hear from you and also my money.
The weather is quite cold here. And we have considerable to contend with too, for the folks is picking the guard off in the road. They shot a boy on the next bed to me the other night; I will tell you how it was done. Your beats is 1/3 mile long, one on a beat, and the fellow that got shot was to one end of the beat, and the rebel came up on the other end, stood behind a tree; and, when he come up off against him, he let shoot at the chappy, and the ball went into his leg—tore the flesh, I tell you.And as soon as he fired, he turned and run. The soldier snapped his gun and it did not go, and then he had to put another cap on his gun. And then he let strip [sic] at the rebel but did not hit him, for by this time he had got out of the way. And when I heard him fire, I went up where the fellow was. His leg bled pretty bad, I tell you. And then he went to the camp which is an eighth of a mile. The Captain and Lieutenant took 10 or 20 men and they put chase to them, but they could not find them, and they don’t know how it was, but they think it was a Negro and I guess it was. And then last night they was seen two men creeping around in the woods. Still later News: the boys has got the fellow and he is half Negro, and he says that he meant to kill him. And he says that he wasn’t the only one that will tap them off. And they say that we shall have something to do if we guard this railroad long—Oh! News is that Maine is going to make a move soon!—and they want to get at this road so they can rip it up, so that your army cannot get any supplies. But they can’t this year any old how. This shooting makes the boys all mad, and they raise the very devil. When they want any bread and milk they go into a house and, if they don’t give it to them, they will pass them right outdoors. They make[nothing of] going right into a hen coop and take a hen or two. They have got down on the citizens here, and tired of the railroad, too. And so am I. For, to get up night after night and go on guard when it rains like Time and the wind blows so that you can’t hardly stand up—this makes the boys think of home. But I do not find much fault. There—I have written you all the news.I was to see George Gage, and he was just open a box from home full of cakes and pies and apples. Give my love to Will and Band,

Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, January 20, 1862

From the 10th Maine.

Lieut. Dill of the Auburn Artillery, 10th Me., arrived in town from the Relay House on Friday. Lieut. D. has been forced to resign on account of the condition of his business at home calling for his presence here. Mr, Dill stated that the 10th Maine is as pleasantly situated as men could ever ask to be. He does not believe there are as many on the sick list, as there would be if the men were ensconsed in their homes in Maine. The climate is admirable in winter—none more healthy. The barracks are very comfortable and the men are supplied with every necessary material comfort. There has been very little snow at the Relay House, and at no time has there been weather of sufficient severity to interfere with the ploughing of the fields. The 10th Maine may surely felicitate itself that it is most carefully provided for.


Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, January 29, 1862

Supplies Forwarded to 10th Maine.

Monday, 20th inst., a box of clothing and miscellaneous articles, weighing upwards of 200 lbs., was packed, and forwarded from Mr. S. B. Thompson's Store, to Co.'s F, (Capt. Knowlton, Lewiston), K, (Capt. Nye) and Co. H, (Capt. Emerson, Auburn), of the 10th Maine. The box was received last Friday, and the contents consisting of about 30 packages, distributed to their owners. A note from one of the officers states that the articles were received with great gratification. They form another practical testimonial to the tender regard of the friends the men have left behind them. The box was filled from the contributions of about 30 persons. Those having packages to forward will take notice that through Mr. Davis at Portland, they may be forwarded free of charge. We learn that another box will be packed at Mr. Thompson's, if it is found that persons in town desire.


Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, March 3, 1862

Three deaths occurred in the Hospital of the 10th Maine last week, Ether Milliken of Saco, F. S. Walker, of Woolwich, and H. S. Fernald. The Chaplain, Rev. Mr. Knox, read the church burial service, and Chandler's Band played a funeral dirge. The bodies were borne by eight comrades to the grave, and six vollies were their farewell from the comrades who had marched with them from the Pine Tree State—to bury them in a village church yard. , 1862


Lewiston Daily Evening Journal, March 5, 1862

From the 10th Maine.

A private letter from the 10th Maine, written last Saturday, informs us that “Co. H (Auburn Artillery) went out six miles in the direction of Harper's Ferry on Thursday, and camped in a GRIST-MILL. Gen. Dix, under whose command we are placed, is to take command in Kentucky. The rear of the Potomac army, of which we are 4 part, has already advanced. A forward movoment is now daily looked for. [Here follows an important announcement of movements of troops, which we withhold.] Gen. McClellan passed the Relay House on Friday, for what purpose or whither is not stated, save by inference. The 10th is expecting to see work soon.”


Contributed to Maine Memory Network by Maine Historical Society
(Coll. 2239, Box 6/1)
MMN #35604
Date: Mar. 9, 1862
Description: Ned Mitchell letter from Maryland

Ellicotts Mills, March 9th/62
Dear Sister Perse
It is a very plesant day such as you have not got in Maine, the birds are singing the grass begins to look green, and I saw some violets this morning. But we have had bad weather enough to make up for all the good we shall have, there was about a month that it rained continually and every thing looked disaggreeable. People that live here say that they never new so much rain.
We have been up here to Ellicotts Mills over a week. When we came hare we expected to go to Harpers Ferry but we missed of it. Our regt is now guarding about forty five miles of the Harpers Ferry branch of the Baltimore and Ohio rail-road so that our regt is pretty well broaken up. there is nobody but the Staff officers and band at the barracks down to the Relay House. the talk is now of making the headquarters of the regt at Fredrick City about fifty miles above here. We are in a first rate place now and I dont care how long we stop here. they are mostly union peopel and they treat the soldiers nifty[?] there is about three hundred factory girles works here. Sergt. Hurd and myself were invited out to tea last night. We got acquainted with a couple of young ladies by accident, as we were out strolling around when where we met these two young ladies and there were three drunken soldiers insisting upon seeing them home they were just about frightend to death we drove the fellows away. seeing by our dress that we were something more than privats they gladly excepted of our escort home. they asked us to call but supposing that it was only through politeness as they are the first class people here we did not do so. until one day we were passing the house there mother came out and called us in the old lady took a great fancy to us. and she has sent for us to come down three times within a week, we go every time of course we do. the young ladies are as agreeable as you can imagin and they are very good looking. You ought to go to one of the nigger meetings they have out. it is better than eny theater or circus that ever was got up I was to one night befor last such another performance I never saw there was one old woman undertook to fly. there singing is what takes me down. I wrote to Maria last week.
As I have nothing more to write
I will stop
P.S. Address as before

history of the first, tenth, twenty-ninth Maine Regiments…by john_mead gould


NOVEMBER 3d, Major Walker took Companies B and F, and went out on the Baltimore and Ohio R. R, posting B at the Relay House, and F at Annapolis Junction, relieving companies of the 4th Wisconsin. This was the first step in developing a plan of Gen, McClellan’s to guard that important line.

NOVEMBER 4th, Monday. We were up early and marched to the Camden St. depot, and at 10 a. 31. arrived at the place called Relay House, on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, though the post office is St. Denis. We had such a quantity of baggage that it took an extra train to bring it, and it was late next day before all the stuff had been carted or carried to the camp.

92 RELAY HOUSE. 1861.

We relieved the 4th Wisconsin (they taking our place in Patterson Park), and following their example in the matter of duty we detailed a camp guard of seventy men, a working party of one hundred to finish the fort,* a guard on the bridge and viaduct of more than fifty, and at night sent an entire company out as a “picket” to protect the camp from surprise. And as it took another company to garrison the fort the force left to drill was not large, Before a week was gone the guards were reduced in number and the folly of a picket dispensed with.

Our stay at the Relay House was pleasant as could be. We had a fine camp ground and an abundance of good rations, including the aerated bread. The few citizens living around the country and at the village of Elkridge Landing, which was across the Patapsco, were generally indisposed to welcome us into their houses, but we had some good friends both in high life and low. Acorns and chestnuts were ripe when we arrived, and there was no great difficulty in passing out to gather them.

Regiment after regiment went by on the cars; at first we hurrahed back to them, but it came to be too much like work at last, for during November and December there was never a day but some regiment, battery or company passed. I had a record once of all the regiments that went through in the day time, but Gen. Stonewall Jackson came up to Winchester on a flying visit one fine May morning after this, you know, and wanted it so much that I was glad to let him have it—very glad indeed—and as he never returned it I can’t present you with a digest of it. The passing of two companies of regulars amused me once so much that I wrote in the diary as follows:

They all kept inside the cars, and were very civil and stupid. I don’t know single instance where volunteer troops have passed without the tops and platforms of cars being covered. These fellows never hurrahed once.

November 9th the 60th New York came out and camped next to us during a heavy rain, They were a good looking set of men but we could not say much of all their officers. The weeding

*Fort Dix, a small work mounting eight or ten guns, overlooking the viaduct, and intended to protect it.


process finally put them on a good footing and they went through the war with honor.

Next day, the first Sunday at Relay House, our regiment was still further split up. Co. B was brought down from Ellicott’s Mills and carried up on the Washington Branch five miles, to a place without a name. D marched over to Elkridge Landing, one mile. G went in the cars to Hanover switch, three miles, and A to Jessup’s Cut, seven miles. F remained at Annapolis Junction, nine miles, where it had been since the 8d. The head- quarters and five companies of the right wing marched over to Elkridge Landing the Thursday after. These movements were the development of the plan for guarding the railroad between Baltimore and Washington, a very necessary precaution consider- ing it was the only railroad to the north from Washington. The 60th New York had the fort and viaduct and the railroad into Baltimore. Then we guarded nine miles to Annapolis Junction; next came the 1st Michigan and after them the 1st District Columbia, the whole constituting the “railway brigade,” com- manded by Col. John C. Robinson of the 1st Michigan, whose headquarters were with his fine regiment at Annapolis Junction.

Every switch had a sentinel on guard over it to prevent any one but railroad officials meddling with it. Also for every quarter mile of track there was a sentinel who traveled over the rocks and sleepers, ever on the lookout that the express trains did not ran over him, though he was put there to keep the track from being torn up. This service was irksome after the first trial, but we found so much to interest us when off duty, that our days in the railway brigade were always looked back upon as days of rest and enjoyment.

A fortnight after the first Sunday, the right wing changed with the left; H changed with D, E with G, K with B, C with A and I with F, and it was intended to change every fortnight, but it was not possible to do so with regularity. We also moved head-* quarters to our first camp Nov. 27th—the 60th N. Y. going off nearer Baltimore, leaving us to garrison Fort Dix again and take care of the viaduct.

Nov. 13th. We learned of the success of Gen. Thos. W.


Sherman's expedition to Port Royal, S.C. We had waited anxiously more than three weeks to hear this good news, for the flect had sailed into a tremendous storm, which impressed itself upon us very forcibly at Patterson Park by blowing down our tents. Though really a naval victory this was the cause of great rejoicing all through the army.

NOV. 18th, Major Fred. Robie, Paymaster, gave us twenty- eight days’ pay. He always brought good news as well, and plenty of it about the other Maine regiments,

But it cannot be denied that pay is demoralizing, and I see in the diary that Co, D, the pattern for the regiment, so far as sol- dierly bearing and discipline were concerned, had several men, a sergeant and their English bugler, all down drunk at once. Lieut, Beardsley, who seemed to enjoy nothing better, collared the noisy ones and filled a tent full before night—and what a night that was! One old Englishman in particular, rebelled against this treatment, and kept up a steady roar from tattoo till reveille, singing occasionally a song which had for its refrain

“We made the Russian bear surrender-r-r, And gained the heights of Almo-o-o.”

Capt. West and his lieutenant were equal to the emergency, and though they could not stop drunkenness entirely, they kept the company discipline up to its excellent standard. The liquor dealers in the neighborhood were treated to our Maine law till they learned to refuse liquor to the soldiers; yet for all the pre- cautions it was never difficult to obtain all that was wanted on the sly.

Congress had raised the pay of privates from $11 to $13 since the 1st Maine had been paid, and so hastily was the act passed that only the privates were thus favored. Consequently the corporals’ pay being unchanged was still but $13, and the musi- cians’ only $12. This also was our first payment in “greenbacks;” they were the issue known as “demand notes,” and were payable in gold.

NOV. 21st, Thursday, was Thanksgiving day in Maine, and as our friends at home had sent usa great abundance of turkeys 1861. OUR HOSPITAL AND NURSES. 95

and chickens all cooked, we had a holiday too. Under that date the diary, besides noting the general happiness of the occasion, states that we had an engine (our old friend No. 81) and car detailed by the railroad company for our use; also that all the companies have erected signs, stating their company and regi- ment, for the benefit of the passengers and soldiers going by. One company had also a request to passengers to throw them their newspapers, which was liberally responded to.

About this time Gen. Dix sent an expedition down the eastern shore of Maryland and Virginia. The Baltimore papers were filled with accounts of it and of the people coming out with cooked meats for the soldiers. I remember that this was cheering news to us, and helped us forget the misery and gloom which came over the army and nation after Bull Run. The diary for November closes with—

‘The month has been mild. We have had few frosts and very little ice has formed, but the men have been quite uncomfortable from the rain.

December 2d. Capt. Estes came on with thirty-six more enlisted men. Next day Eben A. Kimball, of Co.G, died. This was the third death by disease in the regiment. All were from the measles, and all in Co. G. Four days later John S, Henly, also from G, followed them from a like malady. These deaths caused extra efforts to be made in the camp and hospital to keep the health and preserve life. The two lady nurses were at loggerheads with the medical faculty from first to last, which was unfortunate and unpleasant for us all. We naturally took sides with the women, and have always credited them for the general good health we were blessed with after this; but that our feelings against the surgeons were too severe at this time, I think all will admit at this late day. We had good medical officers, and if the ladies did interfere with them, as it was alleged, they none the less discharged their legitimate duties with rare fidelity and success, Our small number of deaths seems to me to be a compliment to all, from Dr. Perry down to the old black auntie who kept things tidy at the hospital.

‘We had advantages in the “10th” never enjoyed in the “1st” 96 REGIMENTAL BATH TUB. 1861,

and “20th,” for you remember that our hospital was a house, which is certainly better than tents in cold weather; then we were all alone, away from the strict discipline so necessary in a large hospital. Our doctors too attended the sick with an interest and care that could not have been given to larger numbers of strangers, and we had a fund which purchased delicacies for the sick.

Beside building barracks the Colonel, who was much affected by the mortality in his old company (G), told the Quartermaster that he must provide some way for the men to bathe, and with his usual success in “drawing” Lieut. Dodge drew a hospital tent, a large bathing tub, a stove and a sixty gallon kettle; these were speedily put in working order, and every day one company ‘was made to bathe there, the men taking turns, and every one of us having a tub of clean warm water, Some rebelled against this but they were threatened with a detail to scrub them. There were others who were indifferent, but the men were so anxious to “keep down the lice” that they insisted upon all being washed. Thus we kept clean and healthy at a very little expense, but I am not aware that any other regiment had such conveniences.

December 17th we began to work on our barracks. We were scantily supplied with tools, and the month went out before the last nail was driven, Each company had one building in which the officers and sergeants had each a room in one end. The cook had a kitchen pretty well fitted up on the other end, and the bunks were in the second story. The sheds up on the line were nearly all different, but not one of the ten could be kept warm in a windy winter day.

We were so late in moving into the barracks that many of us were taken sick, for there was no way to keep warm in the tents, though a few built underground ovens. Among others Captain Knowlton was taken down and was barely saved from death,

While we were right in the midst of building, Dr. McNulty, of Gen. Dix’s staff came out to inspect us. It was my fortune to show him around the men’s quarters, which of course were not very tidy then. The doctor, whose ideas of neatness were far ahead of anything then perfected among the volunteers, made

1861. HARD NAMES. 97

short work with us. He flew from tent to tent saying to the privates, “you're worse than hogs” and you're perfectly filthy,” “you'll all die of camp fever,” and before they could understand what it was that he said he was off to the next company telling them the same. To the few sergeants that he met he was very severe, First dropping into their tents like a bomb-shell, but without waiting to get more than his nose and waxed moustache safely in, he exploded like this:—* Whew! whew! whew! whew!” “Heavens and earth! what filth! Are you a sergeant of this company? You're a hog!—worse than a hog. You deserve to have those stripes stripped off! Yes sit! and put in the guard house, too! Awful! awful!”

And away he went, fuming, to the next one. His visit did us good. Our medical officers looked after us sharply from this time, and we all soon learned the worth of these mottoes which you will not find in the Regulations or Hardee, though it would be well to place them in both and in capitals, as here :



Long before we were established in our barracks we had lively rumors that we were to go into the Burnside expedition, then rendezvousing at Annapolis. This rumor refused to die; and it became startling one day when a man returned from a Baltimore hospital with a pass to Annapolis, which the surgeon in charge insisted upon his having, saying he had inquired at department headquarters and learned that the 10th Maine was at Annapolis, or was going there immediately.

A chapter in our history might be written how our field and staff officers fought for the location of the “10th.” They had seen in the 1st Maine enough of the inconvenience of being in a large army—the main army—and had steadily resisted, as far as subordinate officers can, all attempts to merge us in it again. We were well content with our position on the railroad, but would willingly have shifted it for a “chance” under Burnside. ‘The order never came, however.

The next thing on the programme after settling at the Relay House, was for the officers and a few of the men to send for their wives. These were quartered at the hotel and various private residences near by, and I am quite sure that the regiment gener- ally felt towards them as sailors do towards “petticoats in the cabin.” Lieut. Whitney being unable or unwilling to obtain leave of absence to go home to marry, sent for his betrothed, who promptly came. ‘They were to have been married quietly within an hour or two of her arrival, but the project leaked out, and the diary states that “the officers went en masse to a wedding this evening.” 1862. “ BAND-BOX.” 99

Our Colonel never could be contented as long as there was anything to “draw.” ‘The question of leggins for the men was discussed a long time but never settled; hence we never wore leggins! But the sergeants received their swords in January, and the men were furnished with huge brass shoulder scales weighing nearly a pound. We had also drawn the regulation uniform coat, dark blue cloth, with nine brass buttons in front, and with the white gloves that we bought we were a gay-looking crowd; and if we do sound our own praise it is none the less true that very few volunteer regiments at that time were ahead of us in appearance. This was conceded by many visitors, civil and military, who had seen the regiments around Washington.

The mud was so deep during the month of December and January that most of our drilling was in the manual and bayonet exercise, and I believe we finally arrived as near perfection in handling the musket as could be expected of volunteer troops. In addition to guarding the railroad track we were soon required to put an officer and sergeant on each through train, to arrest deserters. This gave the couple on duty an opportunity to go into Washington or Baltimore, and so brought us in contact with the military world. We learned so many things in this way that it was always a desirable duty to perform, and nothing pleased us sergeants more than to see a good number of sergeants of other regiments going home to recruit, or still better, going home to accept a commission in new regiments. They told us also of officers resigning, or being sent up to the “ Board” for examination, and failing, and having to resign in consequence, thus making a place for some good man, This was extra good news—was it not, brother sergeants? We did not arrest many deserters, however, but I had a day of rich experience in taking one.back to Washington, which so shows the glories of “red tape,” as we called it, that I quote from the diary :


Private Cohen, of the Anderson Zouaves (624 N. Y. V.), was sent back this morning in charge of Capt. West. I went as sergeant, and the Captain allowed me to attend to the business, after giving me full instructions. First, on arriving in Washington, I got a corporal’s guard from the company on 100 RED TAPE STORY. 1862.

duty in the depot, and marched them all down to the Central guard-house, where I took off my cap, made a low bow to the officer in charge and told my story. He wanted to know why I brought a deserter there without an order, so I showed him my R. R. pass, which read, “Pass Sergeant ‘ Goggle’ and prisoner to Washington &e. &.”

“ Who is this J. S. Fillebone?” asked the officer.

“ Fillebrown!” said I, correcting him. “He is our lieut. col. in command of the regiment during Col. Beal’s absence north.”

Here the Captain did some swearing, I believe, and rather sharply inquired if knew of Gen. McClellan, and did this Mr. Fillebrown command Gen. McClellan? I thought best to make no reply. “You must have an order from Major Burnham” said he, and turned away.

I inquired of an orderly who Major Burnham was, what he had to do about it, and where his office was, and he told me all in a way that did credit to the good fellow. My guard had gone back to the depot and I was left to take care of my prisoner alone. So I once more ventured to confront the Captain, and state the fact that the prisoner might overpower me and get away, and after a little pleading I obtained permission to leave him till I could see Maj. Burnham, whose office was a long way off. And this leads me to write, this is the way it is always, in all army business: First, you have to go to Captain Smith on A street, then to Major Jones, on Z street, who refers you to Colonel Brown on First street, who sends you to Gen. Van Blinks on 99th street, where ‘you will learn that you have not addressed the proper officer, and that you will have to begin again.

‘Well, I went to Maj. Burnham's, and as a large part of the army is preparing to move, his office was full of applicants. I waited a very long while before I could get a word to even a subordinate, and had just begun to tell my wants when he interrupted me with, “you'll have to wait a moment.”

So I waited till that crowd had pocketed their passes, and then tried again, and was told to “wait.” I waited and then tried it on another officer, and was likewise told that my case would be attended to after the officers’ claims were, and then it dawned upon my understanding that officers and not “first comers” are “first served” in the army. Watching my chance [tried the third time with the same want of success. So I patiently waited a while and saw the machine work.

‘There came in a chaplain who wanted to preach to somebody over the river. He procured a pass and vanished; the next, a captain, wanted to join his regiment, and he got a pass. In stalked Gen. Benham, and without waiting his turn he proceeded at once to the Major, took twenty minutes to transact his business and went off. It consoled me much to see the captains and lieutenants take their turn at waiting while the General was chatting with the Major.

1862. RED TAPE STORY. 101

Then in rushed a little 2d lieutenant, not twenty years old. He pushed right along as Gen. Benham had, and shoved his paper into the Major's face, obtaining his pass by sheer impudence. This was a lesson for me, the little fellow had refused to wait, I thought I would try it; wasn’t a sergeant-major almost as high as a 2d lieutenant?

I went directly to the Major this time, pushed my railroad pass under his nose and talked as fast as I could of the importance of speedy action—but alas! the same “you must wait my good man,” came in answer. ‘Then I told him I would gladly do so if the ease required a long time for consideration, or* if it must be referred to Gen. McClellan, but “look, sir,” and here I explained it all over to him refusing to hear him say “wait a moment,” till he sat down and dashed off what looked like a physician’s prescription, but if I deciphered it correctly it read as follows:

Confn pris Cohn Cent Gud Hos Bumhm

And then having been, by actual observation 55 1/2 minutes in trying, I came off successful.

I wonder how long I should have waited had I obeyed orders, and sat quietly on the bench till the Major or his subs. could have attended to this highly important case; but if you wonder why I didn’t leave the prisoner, the Major and all, you must know that I was obliged to have a receipt to carry back to Col. Fillebrown—not a duplicate receipt, by the way, for strange as it may seem, while the receipt for one condemned mule must be made in dupli- cate, a single receipt is sufficient for a whole gang of deserters.

It is worth a moment's attention to compare this day of wasted hours with a similar jaunt, about the same time, to Frederick, where Gen. Banks commanded. We had arrested two “Phila- delphia Zouaves” of Stone’s division, with forged furloughs, and I begged the duty of carrying them to Frederick. When Larrived there I reported for orders directly to Maj. Copeland* who had ordered the arrest by telegraph. He didn’t send me to the other end of the town nor tell me to wait, but asked me to warm myself at the fire, where Gen. Banks sat toasting his feet, while he sent his orderly to Capt.——. Then telling me to march the prisoners to the place where his orderly would guide me, he put me in the way to obtain a receipt and return pass, without delay or inconvenience.

Attentions like these from an officer in his position to a

*R, Morris Copeland, Major, A. A. @., Headquarters Banks's corps. 102 PUNISHMENT. 1862.

sergeant in charge of two lousy deserters is not an every day occurrence, and I rejoice to be able to put his name and his deed in print as a set-off against the ugly-looking order which dis- missed him from the service a year afterward because of some alleged free thinking and freer speaking.

These experiences, though personal, have a general likeness to the experiences of hundreds of others. Change the names and places and the story will suit your own case very well.

JANUARY 4,1862, Major Fred. Robie commenced paying us for the months of November and December; this will remind all of us who worked on those rolls how we did our best to get them right and to have them in the Major’s hands ahead of any other regi- ment. We succeeded, and hence were paid off so promptly;— afterward, when greenbacks failed, all such efforts went for nothing. The diary does not note any very demoralizing effects from this payment, but I see that five of our worst characters ran off to Baltimore and never came back.

A system of punishment had been commenced before this which terrified evil doers from its certainty and severity. We had a good guard-house, and there were almost always confined in it a half dozen hard cases with a ball and chain on. These six pets did not make their home very agreeable to strangers, so the last were careful not to pay them a second visit.

Capt, Adams had a couple or more “pet lambs” that tried him well. He drilled them with loaded knapsacks but they grew fat on it. He made “spread eagles” of them, but this only created merriment in the company, and so helped the victims to bear their pain. But at last the Captain succeeded by driving them around camp all day tied together at the legs and with barrels labeled “Drunken Swan” over their shoulders.

During mid-winter our officers were continually teaching us and themselves the details of soldiers’ duty. Among other things we had our morning reports and other messages sent in by the guard, The man of F or I on duty in the morning at Annapolis Junction, would take the documents at double-quick to the next man, who would take the papers and run his quarter mile to the

1862. UNEASY. 103

next, and so on. The best time from F to the adjutant’s quarters was eighty-five minutes; distance nine miles or more.

In December we heard of the battle of Drainsville, a very insignificant affair, but seized upon by General McClellan and the press to dispel the Bull Run gloom still remaining in the army and the nation. The more substantial victory in the West at Mill Spring, followed by the capture of Fort Henry a fortnight later, which also was succeeded by the important victory at Fort Donelson the next week, was all that was needed to make us uneasy. But the Burnside expedition disturbed us most, for it had rendezvoused near us and we had made up our minds to go in it. The news of its hard luck at sea, and in landing, and its successes when once ashore, stirred us up well and made trotting over sleepers and rock ballast, and jumping culverts irksome to us.

If I have watched and judged soldiers rightly, they like an easy time, or a “soft thing” as we style it, as well as any one, but they are constitutionally unable to be satisfied with anything, whether good, bad or indifferent. ‘They are not go often eager to be led to battle, or “spoiling for a fight” as the newspaper cor- respondents wrote. Yet fighting and running risk of wounds and death is something they expect. Sanguine individuals feel that they themselves will be spared even though their regiment or army suffers. We all crave the rough side of war, with its excitement and fascination, as sailors crave sea-life, hating and dreading it, yet having a feeling somewhat akin to instinct, that to fight and to go Into danger are our duties. But more of this by and by: we all know how we felt, and if we talk or write by the hour we can not make others understand it as we do.

The western victories, and Burnside’s, made us feel uneasy, but when President Lincoln issued his memorable War Order No. 1, it was more than uneasiness that we felt. That order, you re- member, appointed Feb’y 22d as the day for an advance of all the armies and the navy. We lived in expectation after this; tramp- ing over the sleepers grew more and more hateful—we saw regiments go by still, but their hurrahs sounded more like jibes


than cheers. Yet under date of Feb'y 22d the diary records nothing more interesting than :

All hands in town at the great parade, * * Our regiment has improved lately, 1st, by many of the officers’ wives going home, 2d, by the issue of new trowsers to all who need, and 3d, by the men purchasing a new cap, instead of drawing the “regulation” article.

We were a stylish regiment then; new clothes, nice new cap, white gloves, polished brasses, and enjoying the pleasant conceit that there never had been and never could be anything ahead of us.

February 27, 1862, Thursday. We noticed this morning that the trains were not running, and early in the forenoon the word came up from the depot that the Government had seized the railroad and telegraph. Before 10 o'clock five immense locomotives came out from Baltimore and went on the turn out. The engineer of our old No. 31 said he had taken McClellan’s private baggage up to Harper’s Ferry this morning, and that a pontoon bridge was thrown across there in fifteen minutes. Two brigades had crossed when he left, and the whole of Banks's army was going south, at double quick! This was exciting. No through train passed, but at 4 pr. at. we heard a whistle and saw a long train of box cars, with soldiers on top, coming from Washington, and we made a rush for the depot and found the cars full of horses, saddled and bridled.

While down there a dispatch came to Col. Beal to take his five companies, a surgeon, two field officers, all his provisions and ammunition, and be prepared for a trip of four or five days! It was done in a wink, and as soon as the cars were ready the battalion went off cheering and singing every lively song we knew, while the band played “Bully for you!” and other ap- propriate airs. Never before had we had such a day, and now we were off, fairly started for the fight, that is, five favored companies were off leaving the other five to their lamentations and profanity. But the sequel to all this is not so brilliant. After going only four miles toward Harper’s Ferry, Capt. Emerson with

“Co. H was ordered out with bag and baggage. At Ellicott’s Mills, two miles further on, Capt. Jordan was put off with Co. 1862. ‘CHANGES—HARPER’S FERRY. 105

C. The other three companies were dropped, K at Elysville, eleven miles from Relay House, G at Woodstock, sixteen miles, and E at the Mariottsville tunnel, nineteen miles, with orders to guard the railway, to the intense disgust of every man, from Col. Beal down to the cooks.

The censorship of the press had become a fixed fact by this time, and there was nothing mentioned in the papers of our move or the stoppage of trains, so we never knew what it all was about, but we all felt that it was a “sell.”

MARCH 8th, the companies of the left wing were withdrawn from the Washington branch and sent up the main stem, B to Hood’s Mill, twenty-seven miles, I to Mt. Airey, thirty-five miles, A to Monrovia, forty-two miles, and F to the Monocacy Bridge, fifty miles from headquarters. But few changes were made in the disposition of the companies after this.

Next we heard of the great Monitor and Merrimac fight and the moving of McClellan's army, he having been made commander of the army of the Potomac—the first clipping of wings he was doomed to.

MARCH 13th, we heard cannonading all day, but kept quiet and cool. A week or more after this, Banks's troops were transported to Washington, Day after day they came, telling us their regi- ments and brigade as they passed, and making us hate ourselves and our luck, March 26th Col. Beal succeeded in bringing A, B, G and K down to headquarters (Relay House), which with H, then there, and C in the fort, gave him a respectable force to drill and discipline. But the very next day came the order to go to Harper’s Ferry, and a rumor that rebels had driven away the workmen from the railroad beyond that place,

Col. Dixon S. Miles, that most unfortunate of men, had command of our brigade now, and by his order, on March 28th we commenced moving to our new field. Finally the headquarters were established in Harper's Ferry, at that time, as ever afterward, the most complete wreck of a city that we ever camped in, The companies were sent all around the country, E to Halltown, G and I to Charlestown, 106 JOE MERRILL'S FEAT. 1862.

C to Van Cleivesville, H to Duffields, K to Kearneysville, A to Opequan Bridge, and B to Martinsburg.

The railroad was not guarded now by sentinels at every quarter mile; the “cit’s” took kindly to us, as they had at our last stations, and we soon learned the solid worth of a true union man. But our duties were tame, and though we look back to those days with pleasure, they are not worth dwelling upon long.

When we arrived at Harper's Ferry, a piece of halyard and a rag were flying from the flag-staff of the armory, and the people of the town said that many rebels and Yankees had tried to reach it by climbing, and had even tried to shoot it down. A few of our boys tried it, but only Joe Merrill, sergeant of F, suc- ceeded. He climbed up without aid of any kind, pulled out the old rope and put in a new one, and came safely down with cheers from the mob for his reward.

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